Coperta Revistei Artes

Artes. Revistă de muzicologie publică studii de cercetare în principalele domenii ale muzicologiei: Istoria muzicii, Teoria muzicii, Analiză muzicală, Estetică muzicală, Etnomuzicologie, Bizantinologie muzicală, Teoria interpretării muzicale.

Numărul 1 al revistei ARTES a apărut în 1996, fiind conceput ca un volum de studii de teoria artei (muzică, teatru, arte plastice), volum publicat de Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” din Iași.

Începând cu numărul 4, profilul tematic al revistei devine exclusiv muzical. Conţinutul şi periodicitatea sa au fost în strânsă legătură cu Simpozionul Naţional de Muzicologie „Ştiinţa muzicii”, organizat, începând cu 1997, de Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”, cu Simpozionul Naţional de Muzicologie „Identitate și contextualitate stilistică în creația muzicală românească”, inițiat de aceeași institutie în 2007, cu Simpozionul Internațional de Bizantinologie, inițiat în 2008 şi cu obiectivele Centrului de cercetare „Ştiinţa muzicii”, acreditat CNCSIS în 2004.

Odată cu numărul 11/2011, revista ARTES a devenit bilingvă, fiind publicată în limbile română și engleză. Tematica s-a extins cuprinzând și cercetări de bizantinologie, iar de la nr. 15 denumirea revistei se schimbă în Artes. Revistă de Muzicologie.


Traducători

Asist. univ. drd. Cristina Misievici

Drd. Emanuel Vasiliu


DTP:

ing. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

www.artes-iasi.ro

Informații generale

Primul număr: 1996.

Primul număr bilingv, română / engleză: 2011


Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Str. Costache Negruzzi 7-9, 700126, Iaşi, Romania

Tel.: 0040232.210458

Fax: 0040232.216637

E-mail: laura.vasiliu@arteiasi.ro

ARTES.REVISTĂ DE MUZICOLOGIE

  • Redactor şef – Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România
  • Senior editor – Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

COMITETUL ȘTIINȚIFIC:

  • Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duțică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România
  • Prof. univ. dr. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia
  • Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Universitatea Națională de Muzică București, România
  • Prof. univ. dr. Pavel Pușcaș, Academia de Muzică „Gheorghe Dima”, Cluj-Napoca, România
  • Prof. univ. dr. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia
  • Prof. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte plastice, Chișinău, Republica Moldova
  • Prof. univ. dr. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germania
  • Prof. univ. dr. Nikos Maliaras, Universitatea Națională și Capodistriană, Atena, Grecia
  • Lect. univ. dr. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia

ECHIPA REDACŢIONALĂ:

  • Conf. univ. dr. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România
  • Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România
  • Lect. univ. dr. Rosina Caterina Filimon, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România
  • Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Coperta Revistei Artes 16 RO

Muzica românească – identitate și contextualitate stilistică

Cum se situează creația muzicală românească în contextul european sau universal – iată tema fundamentală a cercetării muzicologice din România ultimilor 20 de ani, la care se afiliază și conținutul volumului 16 din Artes. Revistă de muzicologie. Prin studierea componisticii românești, istorice și contemporane, în relație cu lumea muzicală, semnatarii articolelor din acest număr, prezenți și în simpozionul cu tematică similară din cadrul celei de-a XIX-a ediții a FESTIVALULUI MUZICII ROMÂNEȘTI, Iași, octombrie 2016, intenționează depășirea stadiului anilor 1970-1990, perioadă de vârf, dar în care s-au asociat, în mod paradoxal, trăsături oponente. Pe de o parte, au erupt bogăția informației, substanțialitatea, nivelul științific și originalitatea, mai ales în studierea creației enesciene. Pe de altă parte, însă, ideologizarea naționalistă sau abstractizarea/conceptualizarea analizei limbajului muzical, dublate de lipsa traducerii textelor în limbi de circulație europeană, au determinat formarea unei imagini unilaterale, parțiale și au adâncit nivelul scăzut de cunoaștere a muzicii noastre în lumea artistică și științifică internațională. Studiile cuprinse în prezentul număr al revistei, deși de anvergură diferită, oferă subiecte inedite în aria tematică anunțată: repunerea în discuție a muzicii românești vechi prin prisma relativismului din cercetarea contemporană a istoriei, reevaluarea unor creații sau scrieri despre muzică prin conectarea lor la sursele europene ale timpului, contribuții punctuale la cunoașterea unor compoziții, concepte teoretice, a unor creatori români din teritorii învecinate, analize în premieră ale unor lucrări recente etc. Continuăm prezentarea de carte muzicală cu recenzia asupra unei substanțiale și semnificativ-reparatorie cercetări de folcloristică românească. Doctoranzi, muzicologi în plină dezvoltare sau personalități ale cercetării muzicale din Iași, București, Chișinău, Brașov – autori cuprinși în numărul 16 din Artes. Revistă de muzicologie – propun un dialog al ideilor și imaginilor asupra artei sonore românești prin mijloacele și direcțiile contemporane ale științei muzicale.

Redactor șef,
Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

CUPRINS

STUDII

  1. CARMEN CHELARU - Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”, Iași, România - Dihotomii necesare în cunoașterea istoriei (muzicii) autohtone – cu referiri la epocile antică și medievală

    REZUMAT

    Istoria redă fapte și judecăți subiective, care însă trebuie abordate cu cât mai multă imparțialitate. Două personalități din acest domeniu, Neagu Djuvara și Lucian Boia tratează fenomenul într-o nouă manieră, detașată de simpatii și antipatii, de manipulări de orice fel. Ei oferă astfel un exemplu principial ce poate fi aplicat și la istoria artelor, incluzând arta muzicală autohtonă. Textul de față propune o privire sintetică asupra istoriei muzicii din spațiul carpato-dunărean, de-a lungul a trei perioade: pre-romană și daco-romană, medievală timpurie și medievală târzie. Despre traci, geți și daci, apoi despre daco-romani, pe cât de puține izvoare materiale există, pe atât de mult se vorbește și se scrie. Câtă vreme nu dispunem de surse interne suficiente și plauzibile, despre muzica acestor strămoși putem emite doar presupuneri. Cea mai veche ramură muzicală care a precedat formarea limbii române a aparținut folclorului. Este însă greu de determinat cu precizie apartenența unor producții artistice populare la stratul geto-dac sau la cel latin. În arta medievală autohtonă timpurie se profilează două ramuri – cea populară și cea religioasă. În privința celei dintâi, schimbări spectaculoase nu au loc față de perioada anterioară; muzica de cult evoluează în conformitate cu organizarea social-statală și cu sedimentările etnice. Evul Mediu a adus sub aspect muzical, existența a trei ramuri importante: folclorul, muzica de cult și cea de curte. Nu originalitatea este țelul textului de față, ci schițarea unui traiect bazat pe echidistanță.

  2. LOREDANA IAŢEŞEN - Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi ROMÂNIA - Creația scenică a lui Alexandru Zirra în context național și universal

    REZUMAT

    Alexandru Zirra, personalitate proeminentă a Iaşului muzical interbelic, cu o activitate impresionantă desfăşurată în multiple domenii (compoziţie, interpretare, muzicologie, didactică), ce i-a provocat pe cercetători să-i dedice numeroase pagini în volume de specialitate, continuă, din păcate, să fie învăluită în mister şi în secolul XXI. Cu toate că i-au fost analizate lucrările (aparținând genurilor cameral, coral, simfonic, vocal-simfonic, operă), s-au scris cronici entuziaste cu ocazia unor prime audiţii, majoritatea opusurilor sale au rămas aproape necunoscute. Bunăoară, din cele cinci lucrări semnificative ale genului scenic, doar două au fost montate în 1941 la Opera Română din Bucureşti (opera istorică Alexandru Lăpuşneanu şi opera basm Capra cu trei iezi) mai precis, cu câţiva ani înainte de trecerea lui în nefiinţă (1946). A fost un factor descurajant, dat fiind faptul că ne referim la un muzician cu un temperament artistic mobilizator, care s-a străduit în decursul întregii cariere să îşi promoveze lucrările. Lipsa de interes a instituţiilor muzicale profesioniste de a-i interpreta opusurile în toate genurile şi, în special, în domeniul teatrului liric, ne-a determinat să parcurgem bibliografia aferentă. Am descoperit că majoritatea autorilor i-au comentat operele având în vedere apartenenţa creatorului la generaţia interbelică. De aceea, în cercetarea de faţă vom urmări dintr-o perspectivă istorico-stilistică, o abordare generală a spectacolelor lui Alexandru Zirra nu numai în context naţional, ci şi în relaţie cu tendinţele şi opusurile din muzica vest-europeană a primelor decenii din secolul XX

  3. ROXANA SUSANU - Colegiul Național de Muzică „George Enescu” București ROMÂNIA - Dimitrie Cuclin și modurile populare românești

    REZUMAT

    Compozitor fecund și original, Dimitrie Cuclin a edificat un sistem propriu de gândire muzicală, cu rezonanțe metafizice, pe care l-a implementat în propria sa creație. Pentru el, muzica devine o imagine a unei lumi superioare, iar înțelegerea elementelor ei (a funcțiunilor) și a relațiilor dintre ele conduce, în final, la cunoașterea universurilor fizic și metafizic. Nonconformist și provocator, Cuclin a regândit bătrânul sistem tonal pe baze neo-pitagoreice și a ordonat funcțiunile și relațiile dintre ele după o logică proprie, pe care a urmat-o, în teoriile și compozițiile sale, cu obstinența unui scolastician. Tonica, dominanta, subdominanta, sensibila primesc roluri care, uneori, contrazic logica muzicală tradițională, fiind redefinite din perspectiva unei mișcări între două universuri paralele, descrise în textele sale metafizice, ethosul modurilor căpătând, astfel, o explicație. Gândirea sa muzicală s-a aliniat ideilor contemporanilor săi (Vincent d´Indy, Hugo Riemann, Ernst Kurth, Wilhelm Worringer), dar concepția sa meta-muzicală (psiho-filosofică) a făcut ca analiza sa să devină subtilă, iar compozițiile inspirate de acest sistem să poarte o amprentă stilistică aparte în peisajul muzical românesc. Studiul de față își propune o interpretare a modurilor românești heptacordice din perspectiva sistemului funcțional cuclinian, considerând că modelul teoretic al acestuia oferă o perspectivă asupra lumii modale a cântecului popular românesc.

  4. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU - Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași ROMÂNIA - Reconsiderarea esteticii lui Pascal Bentoiu în raport cu sursele europene, cu sincronizările universale și cu direcțiile de aplicare contemporane

    REZUMAT

    Opera teoretică a lui Pascal Bentoiu, publicată la începutul anilor '70 (Imagine și sens, 1971, Deschideri spre lumea muzicii, 1973, Gîndirea muzicală, 1975), a avut un destin paradoxal. Pe de o parte, a deschis mințile multor muzicieni și melomani, intrând imediat în bibliografia obligatorie a cursurilor de estetică de la conservatoarele din România. Pe de altă parte, n-au rămas dovezi substanțiale ale înțelegerii și fructificării sale, nici în presa vremii, nici în literatura științifică publicată ulterior. Explicația este simplă: concepția sa filosofică idealistă de sorginte romantică, având în fundal asimilarea scrierilor semnate de Kant, Hegel, Bergson, era clar exprimată – în pofida unor încercări (trucuri retorice) de estompare –, aceasta fiind la polul opus materialismului marxist dominant în anii redactării volumelor. Studiul identifică ideile fundamentale ale concepției sale estetice, axată pe psihologia receptării, precum: 1. primordialitatea percepției globale a articulației/compoziției muzicale (exprimată metaforic prin termenul de imagine) în relație cu procesul analitic al parametrilor sonori; 2. întâietatea conștiinței muzicale (creatoare și receptoare) în fața legilor fizice ale materialului sonor; 3. constituirea gândirii muzicale ca activitate mentală logică ce operează cu „identități fonice” pe axele timpului și spațiului, conectate psihologic/metafizic prin sintagma „continuum spațio-temporal”. Compararea concepției lui Pascal Bentoiu cu principala sa sursă teoretică – Musikpsychologie de Ernst Kurth (1931), la rândul ei o îmbinare dintre teoria gestalt (perceperea întregului), conceptul schopenhauerian al voinței creatoare/creatorului și fenomenul subconștientului relevat de Freud – demonstrează integrarea esteticianului român în fluxul principal al gândirii europene – caz singular în cultura muzicală românească din acea vreme. Dezvăluirea unor posibile paralelisme cu poziții estetice americane – ne referim la metoda psihologică, tot de origine gestaltistă a lui Leonard Meyer (Emotion and Meaning in Music, 1956) – și consecințele (indirecte) ale concepțiilor lui Bentoiu în planul educației muzicale contemporane, al analizei muzicologice, al psihologiei creației sunt proiectate ca obiective complementare ale prezentei cercetări.

  5. PETRUȚA-MARIA COROIU - Universitatea „Transilvania” Brașov ROMÂNIA - Imagini iconice ale creației concertante a maestrului Aurel Stroe

    REZUMAT

    Printre imaginile originale care semnează din punct de vedere stilistic creația maestrului Aurel Stroe amintim câteva dintre cele mai semnificative: „obiectele sonore”, „fuga disipativă”, „acordul-matrice”, „evoluţia separată”, „carnavalul”, „armonia secretă”; explicitarea estetică a acestor noţiuni integrate discursului muzical şi conexarea lor cu planul expresiv sonor oferă multiple satisfacţii celor care aprofundează opera muzicală semnată de Aurel Stroe.

  6. SVETLANA BADRAJAN - Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte Plastice, Chișinău REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

    REZUMAT

    Valentin Doni, originar din Republica Moldova, este un muzician complex, cunoscut în triplă ipostază: dirijor, compozitor şi interpret. În contextul general al muzicii contemporane s-a impus cu strălucire în atenţia publicului meloman şi a criticii de specialitate. Ethosul muzical naţional, după cum a menţionat însuşi compozitorul, a fost întotdeauna sursa sa de inspiraţie. El a încercat şi a reuşit să „împace” melosul popular cu tehnicile componistice moderne. Gândirea sa muzicală extrem de personală a evoluat de-a lungul anilor spre o desăvârşită utilizare a elementelor folclorului muzical pe care le-a ajustat propriei sale personalităţi muzicale, ceea ce e substanțial în a crea o lucrare originală. Dovadă este Concerto Brevis The Clock, care se remarcă prin unitate conceptuală și structurală, dinamism, logica desfășurării discursului muzical, orchestraţia bogată. Tema muzicală, în baza căreia sunt realizate variaţiunile, este preluată din repertoriul lăutarului Filip Todiraşcu. Concerto Brevis The Clock constituie un exemplu inedit de valorificare a sursei folclorice la modul cel mai direct și profund. Preluând creativ o sursă arhicunoscută din muzica foclorică, Valentin Doni reușește să o transforme într-o capodoperă a literaturii muzicale. Acest fapt se datorează talentului său de a percepe culorile timbrale, de a orchestra și a doza sonoritatea, completate de cunoașterea profundă a muzicii și manierei de interpretare violonistice tradiționale.

  7. NATALIA CHICIUC - Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte Plastice, Chișinău REPUBLICA MOLDOVA

    REZUMAT

    Studiul de față reprezintă o schiță analitică asupra unuia dintre ultimele opus-uri ale compozitorului Gheorghe Neaga – Cvartetul nr. 3 pentru instrumente cu coarde. În urma parcurgerii celor două părți ale lucrării se va constata că autorul rămâne într-o anumită măsură adeptul tradiției, raliindu-se în același timp la inovațiile pe care le prezintă perioada postmodernismului. Între acestea, un prim rol se acordă principiului formal aflat într-o dublă ipostază: veche și nouă. Cu o structură arhitectonică bipartită – fiind evitată cvadratura clasico-romantică –, creația cuprinde un șir important de înnoiri introduse de compozitor în baza unor legități cunoscute de secole. Printre acestea se numără diferențele dintre cele două părți (după numărul de măsuri, după exactitatea secționării formelor), dar și problema amplasării centrului liric al cvartetului. Însă nu pot fi ignorate nici alte reprezentări ale limbajului muzical. Fără a neglija tematismul și tehnicile de tratare a acestuia, trebuie menționată totuși surprinzătoarea relație dintre polifonie și armonie, iar faptul că tonalul cedează modalului nu este o noutate pentru perioada de maturitate a compozitorului. În acest context, deși consacrată unei componențe clasice caracteristică genului, lucrarea este o dovadă în plus asupra faptului că cvartetul de coarde a reprezentat dintotdeauna un laborator în care se pot experimenta noi modalități de expresie, de armonie, polifonie etc. Așadar, modernist tradițional, Gheorghe Neaga nu inovează în mod radical limbajul muzical, dar nu se eschivează de folosirea unui limbaj modern la necesitate.

  8. LEONARD DUMITRIU - Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi ROMÂNIA - Metafore sonore înrudite în liedurile pentru voce şi pian de Roxana Pepelea şi Leonard Dumitriu, pe versuri de Vasile Burlui

    REZUMAT

    Lucrarea se concentrează pe cercetarea metodelor componistice pe care doi creatori de muzică le utilizează într-un proiect cu siguranţă inedit în spaţiul muzical contemporan românesc, dacă nu şi în cel internaţional. Pornind de la opt poeme ale lui Vasile Burlui, Leonard Dumitriu şi Roxana Pepelea scriu muzică pe aceleaşi versuri, aproximativ în acelaşi timp, dar fără să discute între ei amănunte despre viziunea creatoare a celuilalt. Colegi de generaţie, absolvenţi ai Conservatorului „George Enescu” din Iaşi la clasa de compoziţie a regretatului Vasile Spătărelu, în anii ’80 ai secolului trecut, cei doi protagonişti ai experimentului voluntar dovedesc asemănări uimitoare (sau poate că nu…) în gândirea componistică profundă şi dau răspunsuri sonore foarte apropiate la multe din problemele ideatice ale versurilor. Odată cu prima audiţie a liedurilor, ei constată că dincolo de sentimentele şi trăirile atât de speciale ale lui Vasile Burlui, pe care nu au cum să le ocolească şi să nu le oglindească în muzica lor, îi leagă acea profunzime simplă, umană şi luminoasă a fostului lor mentor. Mai ales într-unul din liedurile Roxanei Pepelea, imaginaţia glumeaţă a lui „Made”, aşa cum îi spuneau prietenii şi studenţii lui Spătărelu, transpare luminos şi nu lasă loc la interpretări privind descendenţa conceptuală. Roadele experimentului sunt cele 16 lieduri în oglindă, ce atestă soliditatea şi viabilitatea şcolii ieşene de compoziţie.

RECENZII DE CARTE

  1. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”, Iași ROMÂNIA
    Alexandru Voevidca, Folclor muzical din Bucovina – vol. I – Repertoriul ritual-ceremonial vocal, ediție critică și catalog tipologic muzical de Dr. Constanța Cristescu, Suceava: Editura Lidana, 2015.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef – Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Senior editor – Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

COMITETUL ȘTIINȚIFIC

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duțică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Prof. univ. dr. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Universitatea Națională de Muzică București, România

Prof. univ. dr. Pavel Pușcaș, Academia de Muzică „Gheorghe Dima”, Cluj-Napoca, România

Prof. univ. dr. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

Prof. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte plastice, Chișinău, Republica Moldova

Prof. univ. dr. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germania

Prof. univ. dr. Nikos Maliaras, Universitatea Națională și Capodistriană, Atena, Grecia

Lect. univ. dr. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia

Echipa redacţională:

Conf. univ. dr. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Rosina Caterina Filimon, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

DTP:

Ing. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 15 RO

Creație, viață muzicală și intersecții culturale în zona Moldovei

Numărul 15 al revistei Artes – denumită din acest moment Artes. Revistă de muzicologie – grupează studii științifice și recenzii de carte ce reflectă preocupările pentru cercetarea creației și a fenomenelor culturale născute în, sau definind zona Moldovei, cu extensie spre Basarabia și Ucraina. Conținutul de idei pare a prelungi spiritul Conferinței Internaționale de Muzicologie, România muzicală și culturile învecinate. Tradiții, influențe, identități, conferință organizată de Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” în 2013 – eveniment ce a evidențiat existența multiplelor legături muzical-culturale în zona Europei de Est și Sud-Est, o tematică muzicologică aflată încă în proces de investigare. Colaborarea muzicologiei ieșene cu cercetarea întreprinsă la Chișinău, printr-un dialog științific ce are deja o tradiție și, de dată recentă, cu etnomuzicologia practicată la Cernăuți, face posibilă o analiză comparativă, atât a tradițiilor folclorice, cât și a componisticii actuale. Studiile din prezentul număr reflectă totodată activitatea muzicologică ieșeană, unele fiind la origine comunicări științifice prezentate la Simpozionul de muzicologie Identitate și contextualitate stilistică în creația muzicală românească, ediția a VI-a, 2014. Alte articole prezintă cercetări în aria de conținut formulată. Abordările muzicologice, atât la nivelul subdomeniilor, cât și a tehnicilor de analiză, sunt diferite, urmărindu-se însă respectarea acelorași parametri științifici: încadrarea în sfera de cercetare, prin referințe consistente, claritate și coerență a conținutului, acuratețe terminologică și aport de originalitate în cadrul subiectului. O primă categorie de articole ilustrează istoria muzicală ieșeană, având profil general de cercetare istoriografică – „Zidiri muzicale ieșene disparate sau pe cale de dispariție”, studiu elaborat de muzicologul și profesorul de istoria muzicii Carmen Chelaru – sau monografică – „Ella Urmă, o viaţă dedicată cântului ieşean”, semnat de Loredana Iațeșen, cercetătoare interesată și de creația istorică a Iașului muzical. Acest număr cuprinde și studii despre compozitori români contemporani de origine moldovenească – o analiză originală asupra unor miniaturi vocale scrise de Felicia Donceanu (născută la Bacău) – „O viziune hermeneutică asupra liedurilor Cu penetul şi La mijloc de codru des de Felicia Donceanu” –, oferită de tânăra muzicologă Mihaela-Georgiana Balan și studiul monografic asupra componisticii și muzicologiei lui Liviu Dănceanu (născut la Roman), „Liviu Dănceanu – Reflectarea muzicii vs muzica reflecţiei”, de Laura Otilia Vasiliu. Tradițiile și creatia contemporană din vechile teritorii românești, Bucovina și Basarabia, sunt reprezentate de studiul „Folk musical creativity in the development of cultural traditions among youth”, o privire comparată românoucraineană dezbătută de Yaryna Vyshpinska de la „Yuriy Fedkovych” Chernivtsi National University. Totodată, aspecte ale componisticii și muzicologiei din Republica Moldova apar în mod elocvent în articolul „Ipostaze ale creației lui Gheorghe Neaga reflectate de muzicologia lui Vladimir Axionov” de Natalia Chiciuc, doctorand la Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte plastice din Chișinău. Începând cu acest număr, revista publică și recenzii de carte, selectând importante publicații referitoare la creația muzicală ieșeană (Carmen Chelaru (coord.), Studii de muzicologie de & despre Vasile Spătărelu –, Iași, Editura Artes, 2015), volume de referință, lansate la Iași (Grigore Constantinescu, Patru secole de operă. Istorie și stiluri, personalități creatoare, capodopere, repertorii, București, Editura ONB, 2014) sau reprezentând titluri bibliografice fundamentale și pentru cercetarea muzicală actuală (Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, London, J. M. Dent & Sons LTD, 1948).

Redactor șef,
Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

CUPRINS

STUDII

  1. CARMEN CHELARU - Zidiri muzicale ieșene dispărute sau pe cale de dispariție

    REZUMAT

    Asemenea orașelor-muzeu Praga sau Florența, Iașul este pentru orice iubitor de cultură un loc binecuvântat de muze. Poate nicăieri în România nu întâlnim o densitate mai mare de urme ale trecerii unor mari oameni ai istoriei culturale românești, ca la Iași! Demersul de față nu este un efect al nostalgiei vremurilor trecute, ci se dorește un semnal pentru cei ce ar trebui să vegheze la conservarea locurilor și zidirilor atinse de aripa binefăcătoare a artei, culturii ori gândirii geniului românesc. Am văzut la Salzburg plăci cu informații pe aproape fiecare colț de stradă ori de clădire, ce amintesc posterității că acele locuri au cunoscut, fie și trecător, vecinătatea spiritului ales al marelui Amadeus. Iașul cuprinde nenumărate locuri legate de nume mari ale culturii și artei românești și europene, care, din fericire au rămas menționate în scrieri prețioase – mai vechi sau mai noi –, dar, din nefericire, dispar din peisajul citadin văzând cu ochii. Ne-am luat îndemnul așadar să înserăm, cu prilejul unicului Festival dedicat muzicii românești, câteva comentarii despre edificii muzicale ieșene care au fost și nu mai sunt, de asemenea care încă sunt și probabil nu vor mai fi! Între acestea, Casa Ghica, așezămintele din strada Lăpușneanu, Casa Sadoveanu și alte câteva.

  2. LOREDANA IAȚEȘEN - Ella Urmă. O viaţă dedicată cântului ieşean

    REZUMAT

    Figură marcantă a Iaşului muzical din a doua jumătate a secolului XX, care anul acesta a împlinit onorabila vârstă de 95 de ani, soprana şi profesoara Ella Urmă reprezintă un model de dăruire profesională şi umană. Astăzi o receptăm atât din perspectiva interpretărilor de excepţie, pe care le-a oferit unor pagini de referinţă din repertoriul universal şi românesc, cât şi din sfera pedagogului de elită, care prin cariera didactică deosebită, a facilitat formarea şi afirmarea unor tinere talente la nivel naţional şi internaţional. Mai mult, numele ei este asociat cu activitatea intensă organizatorică pe care a susţinut-o în calitate de fondatoare a şcolii autohtone superioare profesioniste de canto. Pornind de la bibliografia existentă în dicţionare, enciclopedii, sinteze istoriografice, pagini de memorialistică, cronici, interviuri, în studiul de faţă ne propunem reconstituirea unei personalităţi din spaţiul muzical ieşean de odinioară, care, în desfăşurarea vieţii artistice prestigioase, s-a preocupat într-o manieră unică, de realizarea unei cariere lirice, în slujba activităţii didactice.

  3. NATALIA CHICIUC - Ipostaze ale creației lui Gheorghe Neaga reflectate în muzicologia lui Vladimir Axionov

    REZUMAT

    Figura artistică a compozitorului Gheorghe Neaga constituie un fenomen complex și indispensabil artei muzicale autohtone. Printre cei care au oferit posterității cercetări importante în plan muzicologic se găsește și Vladimir Axionov. Investigațiile acestuia – care au drept obiect de studiu simfonia și genurile muzicii simfonice, evoluția sau periodizarea muzicii simfonice autohtone, folclorismul și influența folclorului asupra tehnicilor de compoziție, problema stilului etc., – rămân a fi unele fundamentale pentru muzicologia fundamentală din Republica Moldova, iar prezentarea frecventă a unor analize ale opus-urilor lui Gheorghe Neaga în practic toate studiile – separate sau împreună cu lucrări ale altor autori – indică importanța repertoriului său componistic în procesele creative petrecute în muzica autohtonă și în numeroasele tendințe ale acesteia. În aproape toate investigațiile semnate de către Vladimir Axionov, în care acesta abordează în repetate rânduri diferite probleme existente în istoria și teoria muzicii, se găsesc exemple magistrale din lucrările compozitorului Gheorghe Neaga, propuse drept model ulterioarelor cercetări. Prin urmare, articolul de față cuprinde unele constatări ale muzicologului în cele mai diverse direcții de cercetare sesizate inclusiv în baza unor creații ale compozitorului Gheorghe Neaga, precum cele trei simfonii, simfonia vocală Perpetuum Mobile, suita pentru orchestră, poemul simfonic Danco, concertele violonistice, Cvartetul nr. 1, toate considerate mostre atât pentru fiecare gen în parte, cât și pentru întreaga artă muzicală autohtonă.

  4. MIHAELA-GEORGIANA BALAN - O viziune hermeneutică asupra liedurilor Cu penetul şi La mijloc de codru des de Felicia Donceanu

    REZUMAT

    În cultura muzicală românească, Felicia Donceanu rămâne un nume de referinţă în creaţia de lied, realizând o sinteză originală între elementele specifice muzicii folclorice româneşti şi sistemele intonaţionale moderne. În acest studiu, ne propunem realizarea unei analize comparate a două lieduri compuse de Felicia Donceanu, intitulate Cu penetul şi La mijloc de codru des, care fac parte din ciclul Imagini pe versuri de Mihai Eminescu. Analiza detaliată la nivelul tuturor elementelor de limbaj muzical constituie baza investigaţiei muzicologice urmărite, iar comentariul de tip hermeneutic, focalizat asupra aspectelor de simbioză între parametrii sonori şi versurile din creaţia eminesciană are rolul de a pătrunde cât mai adânc în substratul semantic al discursului poetico-muzical.

  5. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU - Liviu Dănceanu – Reflectarea muzicii vs muzica reflecţiei

    REZUMAT

    Studiul se doreşte a fi o introducere în opera lui Liviu Dănceanu, remarcabil teoretician şi practician al fenomenului muzical românesc din ultimele trei decenii. Liviu Dănceanu s-a născut în 1954 la Roman, a absolvit Universitatea Națională de Muzică București (1980), secția de compoziție, la clasa profesorului Ștefan Niculescu. Creația sa cuprinde peste 150 de lucrări muzicale, 20 de cărți în sfera filosofiei și hermeneuticii muzicale, numeroase articole. În calitate de director și dirijor a ansamblului Archaeus, fondat în 1985, a susținut o luxuriantă activitate concertistică în întreaga lume A obținut numeroase premii de compoziție, printre care: ”Studium de Toulouse Prize”, 1986, Premiul Academiei Române, 1989, premii ale UCMR, 1988, 1990, 1994, 2001, 2004, 2006, Premiul ACIN (pentru muzică de film, 1988). Compoziții ale sale au fost comandate de festivaluri, asociații muzicale sau orchestre din lume. Dacă la o privire superficială, activitatea sa se orânduieşte pe palierele creaţiei, interpretării şi reflectării muzicologice, o receptare mai atentă dezvăluie unitatea manifestărilor sale artistice, aflate sub semnul unei permanente reflecţii asupra lumii, condiţiei umane, filosofiei artei şi destinului muzicii.

RECENZII DE CARTE

  1. LOREDANA IAŢEŞEN - Patru secole de operă în viziunea lui Grigore Constantinescu
    Grigore Constantinescu, Patru secole de operă. Istorie şi stiluri, personalităţi creatoare, capodopere, repertorii, București: Editura ONB, 2014.
  2. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU - O imagine poliprismică a creaţiei lui Vasile Spătărelu
    Carmen Chelaru (coord.), Studii de muzicologie de & despre Vasile Spătărelu, Iași: Editura Artes, 2015.
  3. CARMEN FERARU - Barocul muzical în viziunea lui Manfred Bukofzer
    Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era1, London, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1948.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef – Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Senior editor – Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

COMITETUL ȘTIINȚIFIC

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duțică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Prof. univ. dr. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Universitatea Națională de Muzică București, România

Prof. univ. dr. Pavel Pușcaș, Academia de Muzică „Gheorghe Dima”, Cluj-Napoca, România

Prof. univ. dr. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

Prof. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru și Arte plastice, Chișinău, Republica Moldova

Prof. univ. dr. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germania

Prof. univ. dr. Nikos Maliaras, Universitatea Națională și Capodistriană, Atena, Grecia

Lect. univ. dr. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Grecia

Echipa redacţională:

Conf. univ. dr. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Rosina Caterina Filimon, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași, România

DTP:

Ing. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 14 RO

Volumul al 14-lea al revistei ,,Artes” conține o serie de comunicări susținute în cadrul Conferinţei Internaționale de Muzicologie organizată în perioada 4-7 iulie 2013 de Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” din Iași în colaborare cu Regional Association for the Balkan Countries of the International Musicological Society (IMS), cu tema ”Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities”. Autorii sunt cercetători din Grecia, Croaţia, Serbia şi România. De asemenea, au fost incluse în volum alte patru studii, semnate de specialişti din Iaşi, Bucureşti şi Timişoara, care contribuie la lărgirea tematicii propuse inițial.

Revista apare în variantă bilingvă româno-engleză, traducerile fiind realizate prin grija autorilor.

CUPRINS

A. Comunicări susţinute în cadrul Conferinţei Internaţionale de Muzicologie ”Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities”, 4-7 iulie 2013.

  1. KOSTIS DRYGIANAKIS – “Κατά τους κάτω χρόνους” (“During the latest times”): Some thoughts on the cultural context of Greek chanting during the 19th and the 20th centuries.

    ABSTRACT

    Although musicologists tend to overpronounce the continuity of Greek Church music (the so-called ‘Byzantine’) from the medieval times till our days, the 19th century is a period of radical changes. In a geographical area earlier dominated by imperia, the development of nationalism creates new perspectives as well as new problems, and this becomes very clear in the birth of autocephalous national Churches that break up the tradition of ecumenism. The procedures that end up to the formation of nations and national states in the region (like the effort for standardization of national languages and the development of what Benedict Anderson calls “print capitalism”) obviously trigger changes in the chanting art, which gets more systematic, homogenous and clearly entrenched inside national borders. The development of civil structures (like societies, organizations and educational institutions) suggests new patterns of musical activity, which gradually depart form the religious devotional life and later become dominant carriers of the Church music. These carriers create new channels for dissemination of the music and introduce new elements into the music aesthetics, a procedure that continues till today. The modern, West-European scientific historical and musicological approaches give rise to various questions about the present state of the chanting art and about the aesthetic qualities of chanting, at times guiding to reconstructive projects while in other cases developing theoretical documentations of the practices in use. Round the change of the century, recordings and the musical industry introduce even more new aproaches, not only in methods of writing down the music but also in ways of perceiving it. The development of formal musical education and research in the next years brings to the surface even more issues. Given all these changes, one comes to the question: To which extend the contemporary performances of the Greek Church music resemble their older counterparts?

  2. IOANNIS LIAKOS; SEVI MAZERA – Dionysios Foteinos: a Greek melourgos in Romania Nektarios Vlachos: a Romanian melourgos on Mount Athos. Their enchanted Doxologies.

    ABSTRACT

    After the first blossom period of Psaltic art during the post-Byzantine period, the melopoitiko kind of Doxologies presents great development and wide acceptance. Certainly, such rise does not appear suddenly but draws its affect from the famous 17th century group of four: Balasios the priest, Petros Bereketes, Panagiotis Chrysafis the new and Germanos of New Patras. Along with these, a significant number of prominent musicians - melourgoi deliver a series of Doxologies composed in all eight echoi (modes). Daniel Protopsaltes, Petros Lambadarios, Iakovos Protopsaltes and Petros Byzantios are some of the last composers – melourgoi of Doxologies of the period between 18th and 19th centuries. To them we owe on one hand the creation and recording on musical manuscripts of the so-called slow (αργή) and brief (σύντομη) tradition on psaltic compositions according to the new kind of melopeoia and on the other the introduction of this Psaltic tradition to the Danubian Principalities and Black Sea territories at this period. Dionisios Fotinos, a great Greek scholar, poet, painter, writer, famous Psalt (chanter) and melourgos (composer) follower of the Psaltic tradition of Constantinople (as a student of Iakovos Protopsaltes and Petros Byzantios) and Ieromonachos Nektarios Prodromitis Vlachos, experienced melourgos who came from Wallachia in his way to Mount Athos, they both constitute the link to the continuity of the Psaltic tradition at Mount Athos and the Danubian Principalities. Two musical manuscripts at the Library of the Romanian Academy in Bucharest as well as one at the University of Thessaloniki and the printed version of Christodoulos Georgiades Kessaniaios (1856), preserve the Doxologies of Dionisios Fotinos. On the other hand, the Doxologies of Nektarios Vlachos, both his own as well as his adaptations of Doxologies of Greek melourgoi in the Romanian language, are displayed in many Mount Athos musical manuscripts

  3. CONSTANTINOS KARAGOUNIS – The Orthodox Synaxaria as direct and indirect sources of the independent science “Musicology of the Psaltic Art” and its specific scientific disciplines.

    ABSTRACT

    The Musicology of the Psaltic Art, as a relatively recent science, is still in that “precocious” situation, a typical feature of which -at least, in Greece- is the absence of clearly defined sectors of scientific research. The direct and primary need for investigation of the theoretical and musical sources, as well as for study and comprehension of the development of the notation, necessarily left “for a later day” the activity in other directions; directions like the Didactic and Pedagogic of Psaltic Art, its Morphology and Analysis, its Anthropology and Psychology, its Comparative Musicology and other equally important ones. Among them, we think that the research on the Theology and Literature of the Psaltic Art is a extremely important sector; through its conclusions one could go through all the theological teachings, the “theologiseis” of the Church Fathers about the Holy Psalmody, and at the same time through all the direct and indirect historical evidences of the Church and non-Church literature on the orthodox liturgical music. Aiming to an official definition of the sector of Theology and Literature of the Psaltic Art, the Orthodox Synaxaria is a “sine qua non” field for research, which comes out to be a very important source. The texts of Synaxaria contain many interesting elements about Holy Psalmody, which can be epitomized in the following aspects.

    • Psalmody as an uninterrupted, non-stop action of the Heaven’s Church of Angels and Saints, for endless glorification of the Most-Sacred Trinity God.
    • Church Music as a guiding and saving vehicle inside the Orthodox Holy Worship, which has been cultivated and shaped by the enlightened “ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ” Church Fathers, the sacred hymnographers, “melodoi” (hymnographers and also composers) and chanters.
    • Psaltic as an Art, having close ties and being inseparably linked with the ritual elements of the Orthodox Worship, an Art which, however, went through gradual modification, reaching through the centuries high levels of artistry and virtuosity.
    • Psalmody as a personal prayer and as a vehicle for prayer into the orthodox experience of the Church in general, and of the individual faithful in particular.
    • The non-Church music, the instruments, the secular songs, the dances and the relevant, the entertainments, the popular-folk feasts and festivals etc, are demonical tools and instruments of the devil, in his effort for “stealing” the spirit of man away from the Kingdom of the God.

  4. CONSTANȚA CRISTESCU – Repere stilistice în muzica psaltică a secolului al XIX-lea. Studiu de caz.

    REZUMAT

    În condiţiile în care personalitatea componistică a psalţilor era cu greu recunoscută şi este greu recunoscută şi în zilele noastre, prin studiul de caz pe care îl propun demonstrez că marile personalităţi ale literaturii psaltice din secolul al XIXlea s-au impus nu numai prin măiestrita mânuire a modelelor retorice consacrate, ci şi prin tehnici de creaţie proprii, care le particularizează stilistic. Am comparat soluţiile de tâlcuire psaltică a textului Voscresnei (Stihira Învierii) glasului al II-lea de către Macarie Ieromonahul, Dimitrie Suceveanu şi Nectarie Ieroschimonahul la nivelul concepţiei arhitectonice, al proporţionării formei, al lexicului grupat pe funcţii sintactice, al sistemului ornamental şi al dinamicii melo-ritmice.

  5. SANJA MAJER-BOBETKO – Croatian Music-Historiographical Syntheses in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    ABSTRACT

    This paper has developed as a result of the research done in the framework of the scholarly project Croatian music historiography before 1945, which has been funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport of the Republic of Croatia. So far, the research in music historiography of the 19th century has been concluded.
    A completed bibliography includes works by Croatian authors active in Croatia or abroad as well as works by authors from other countries who dealt with historical issues related to Croatian music. A sum of more than 3000 recorded relevant bibliographic units so far might provide evidence of a multiple increase of the number of music-historiographical sources compared to the 19th century (around 460 were published altogether), and through analytical approach it has already been determined in this moment of the research that a great number of them surpass the previous period in its scholarly and/or professional relevance. Since Croatian music historiography of the first half of the 20th century was much more professionalized than that of the 19th century, its results were more respectable. This is seen in numerous articles and studies as well as in the music-historiographical syntheses.
    While in the 19th century only one general music history was written (but not published) in the period between 1911 and 1944 three general music histories and five national histories were published. Four of them dealt with Croatian and one with Slovakian music history. Finally, a book on Croatian music history by non- Croatian author Ivan Kamburov was published in Sofia in 1942. The authors of general music histories were Stjepan Hadrović (1911), Josip Andreis (1942) and Hubert Pettan (1942, 21943), of Croatian music histories Božidar Širola (1922, 1942), Branimir Ivakić (1930), and Hubert Pettan (1944), and of Slovakian Josip Andrić (1944). Structural odels and/or concepts, including ideological ones, are going to be displayed in the paper.

  6. STEFANKA GEORGIEVA – Musical-Cultural Activities in the Bulgarian Emigrant Communities in Romania in the Second Half of the XIX Century.

    ABSTRACT

    The presentation emphasizes on the musical-cultural activities performed in Brǎila, a town called by historians “the cultural capital of the Bulgarian Diaspora”. Some of the initiatives of the immigration, besides the numerous popular concerts before the citizenry and at the homes of the rich Bulgarian families, go beyond regional life and reflect on the development of the pre-liberation and postliberation Bulgarian musical culture. First of all, this refers to the appearance of forms of organized musical life with the creation of the Bulgarian-Romanian Musical Society ”Muza” (1867) and of the Bulgarian Philharmonic Society ”Mara” (1869). The ten-year stay in Brǎila of Dobri Voynikov, one of the most famous writers of the Bulgarian National Revival, as well as his co-operation with the Romanian playwright Iorgu Caragiale, stimulates the writing of “dramas with singing” which the researchers of the Bulgarian musical theatre, quite reasonably, place in the entrance of its history. Among his associates are the brothers Isidor and Mihail Mihalidi (Mihaylovich) for whose performer’s and creative activities no analog is found in early Bulgarian musical culture.


B. Studii cu tematică diversă

  1. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ – Mihail Berezovschi, compozitor reprezentativ pentru muzica liturgică corală din Basarabia, din perioada anteşi interbelică.

    REZUMAT

    Studiul de faţă îşi propune să realizeze o succintă analiză stilistică a creaţiei liturgice corale a compozitorului Mihail Berezovschi, personalitate muzicală reprezentativă din Basarabia, care a activat în prima jumătate a secolului XX. Sunt analizate sursele monodice ale prelucrărilor corale ale cântărilor Liturghiei, Vecerniei şi Utreniei, precum şi mijloacele componistice folosite de compozitor pentru valorificarea acestora. În urma analizei, am constatat că Mihail Berezovschi este un continuator al esteticii şcolii ruse de compoziţie corală, în ceea ce priveşte invenţiile melodice proprii şi modul lor de prelucrare armonică. În privinţa armonizării, prelucrările de muzică psaltică nu diferă prea mult de creaţiile originale ale compozitorului, poate doar prin faptul că recurg, în general, la treptele principale ale tonalităţii în care este transpus glasul psaltic, şi mai puţin la treptele secundare; de asemenea, nu se modulează în tonalităţi îndepărtate, ci de obicei, la tonalitatea relativei (majore sau minore, după caz). Uneori pentru armonizare e folosită varianta armonică a tonalităţii de bază, mai ales în cazul în care melodia modulează într-un glas cromatic (II, VI). În general este preferată armonizarea de tip omofon; lipseşte pedala armonică a isonului, care însoţeşte de obicei, cântarea psaltică, pe care o subliniază şi o pune în valoare. Simplificarea ornamentelor, înveşmântarea armonică tonală a liniei melodice şi lipsa isonului fac să se piardă din farmecul specific monodiei psaltice. Din acest motiv, prelucrările corale ale lui Mihail Berezovschi se apropie mai mult de muzica liturgică rusească și de cea apuseană, de tipul coralului armonic, decât de prelucrările corale liturgice româneşti din aceeaşi perioadă, de orientare tono-modală.

  2. ANDREI BEJAN – Aspecte ale reformei hrisantice și ale aplicării acesteia în țara noastră (secolul XIX).

    REZUMAT

    Studiul de față abordează aspecte de sinteză cu privire la personalitățile reformei hrisantice, Hrisant de Madyt, Grigorie Protopsaltul și Hurmuz Hartofilax care au avut o activitate teoretică și practică decisivă pentru implementarea reformei hrisantice în Grecia. De asemenea, sunt prezentate informaţii cu privire la școlile de psaltichie din provinciile istorice Moldova și Țara Românească, care au avut un rol important în introducerea noii notaţii şi a repertoriului hrisantic în Biserică Ortodoxă Română. În finalul studiului este descris codicologic un manuscris în notaţie hrisantică, nesemnalat până în prezent, ms. 240, Liturghier, alcătuit de monahul Martinian la Mănăstirea Cernica. Acest puternic centru de „românire” din preajma Bucureștiului a înflorit în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea, în timpul starețului Calinic, un adevărat susținător al culturii teologice și muzicale bisericești în limba română.

  3. SERGIU CÂRSTEA – Metode de studiu care au revoluționat stilul de interpretare la trompetă (secolul XX).

    REZUMAT

    Articolul descrie o serie de metode de studiu tehnic din secolul XX, care au stat la baza modificării stilului interpretativ și a formării mai multor generații de trompetiști care au edificat acest stil, creând noi posibilități de expresivitate, corespunzătoare limbajului muzical al secolului XX.

  4. CONSTANTIN STAVRAT – Suita Tablouri dintr-o expoziție – aranjamente și transcripții pentru orchestră și grupuri camerale

    REZUMAT

    Reprezentant de seamă al culturii muzicale ruse, Modest Petrovici Musorgski (1839-1881) s-a impus, totodată, ca una dintre figurile importante ale galeriei personalităţilor componisticii universale din secolul XIX. Membru marcant al Grupului celor Cinci, Musorgski a fost nu numai un deschizător de drumuri, ci şi un inovator al muzicii ruse în perioada romantică, deoarece el s-a străduit să-i realizeze o identitate unică, influenţe ale limbajului său infiltrându-se adânc în creaţia generaţiilor ulterioare. Modest Musorgski a zămislit în 1874 suita Tablouri dintr-o expoziţie, într-o magistrală realizare pianistică, cu o melodică şi o ritmică de o mare forţă sugestivă, într-o înveşmântare armonică originală, colorată, bogată în elemente modale, cu o inedită construcţie arhitectonică.
    Înscriindu-se în galeria capodoperelor secolului XIX dedicate pianului, Suita Tablouri dintr-o expoziţie reprezintă ca una dintre cele mai importante realizări ale muzicii instrumentale programatice din perioada romantică. Paleta extrem de colorată şi de complexă a sonorităţilor armonice, a multitudinii vocilor, a contrastelor timbrale şi de registru ce depăşesc cu mult limitele unui singur instrument, pianul, explică faptul că Suita Tablouri dintro expoziţie a fost supusă, timp de peste un secol, imediat după publicarea sa, numeroaselor aranjamente, transcrieri, adaptări pentru orchestră, pentru instrumente solo sau cu acompaniament de pian, pentru ansambluri de instrumente omogene sau mixte. În materialele informative asupra acestui subiect figurează circa 50 de aranjamente şi transcrieri integrale sau fragmentare ale Tablourilor dintr-o expoziţie, fapt care certifică această suită printre creaţiile ce provoacă în permanenţă fie fantezia interpretativă, fie trezesc imaginaţia şi forţa creativă, în scopul de a realiza inedite şi inspirate instrumentaţii/orchestraţii.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef: Prof. univ. dr. Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi

Conf. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte Plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. dr. asoc. Maria Alexandru, Universitatea „Aristotle”, Thessaloniki, Grecia

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu Dediu, Universitatea Naţională de Muzică Bucureşti

Echipa redacţională:

Lect. univ. dr. Irina Zamfira Dănilă

Lect. univ. dr. Rosina Caterina Filimon

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron

Coperta: Bogdan Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 13 RO

Prezentul volum, al 13-lea, al revistei „Artes” reprezintă o noutate, prin faptul că abordează teme de bizantinologie muzicală, realizându-se astfel o lărgire a tematicii generale de muzicologie. Această nouă deschidere a fost posibilă prin integrarea sub numele de „Artes” a revistei de arte bizantine „Byzantion romanicon” a specializării Muzică religioasă. În decursul celor 17 ani care au trecut de când a fost înființată, la inițiativa şi sub coordonarea Preot conf. univ. dr. Florin Bucescu și a doamnei prof. univ. dr. Gabriela Ocneanu, revista de arte bizantine „Byzantion Romanicon” a înregistrat un număr total de 9 apariții, remarcabile contribuții în planul cercetării și valorificării muzicii de tradiție bizantină. Astăzi, revista „Byzantion Romanicon” își găsește un nou cadru, cu siguranță de bun augur pentru afirmarea și confirmarea și pe plan internațional a cercetării în domeniul bizantinologiei muzicale românești.
Așadar, volumul al 13-lea al revistei „Artes” conține comunicări susținute în cadrul Simpozionului Internațional de Bizantinologie organizat în 13-14 iulie 2012 la Universitatea Națională de Arte ,,George Enescu” din Iași, cu tema Intervale și ehuri. Genul cromatic. Ornamentica în muzica românească de tradiție bizantină. De asemenea, au fost incluse în volum alte două importante studii care, deși nu se înscriu în problematica Simpozionului, reprezintă contribuții valoroase la lărgirea tematicii propuse inițial.

CUPRINS

Cuvânt înainte.

I. Intervale și ehuri. Genul cromatic

  1. DANIEL SUCEAVA – Stihurile celor opt glasuri și vechimea octoihului.

    ABSTRACT

    The topic of the grassroots of octaechia (h2 o3ktahci1a) as a taxonomical principle concerning the eight modes of the Byzantine music, as well as the octoechos in terms of liturgical book to which this principle has been applied (or has originated from), has undergone several periods of time while being object to research study. Since the legendary paternity of Saint John Damascene, the pioneer of the semiography and Byzantine hymnography in church tradition, passing through the reevaluation from the first decade of the last century, resulting in considering the octoechos of Severus, the Monophysit Patriarch of Antioch (V-VI c.), as being the first certification of the hymnographical octaechia, the recent studies in which, refuting the afore-mentioned hypothesis, written proofs had been revealed, including fragments on papyrus, prior to Damascenian epoch (Greek, Georgian, Armenian, Syrian, Arabic manuscripts, some recently discovered), try to prove that the origin of the cult book, structured on the eight-week continuous sequence of the Christian liturgical calendar, is hagiopolitan (Palestinian), therefore reflecting the liturgical service of the cathedral in Jerusalem.
    The equivalence of the eight echoi (modes) of the psaltic theory with the harmoniai (a2rmoni1ai) of the Hellenic ancestry has been regarded from the beginning of more rigorous investigations on the phenomenology of the Byzantine musical art, as an artificial construction. But even those short dodecasyllabic poems, devoted to each echos that can be encountered within the Greek octoechoi in which the old ethos-doctrine of the Hellenic harmoniai late reflexion has been seen, have been considered, by the scolars who scientifically managed to publish and decipher the Byzantine musical monuments, factical poetical improvisations lacking any real ground. They appear in manuscripts starting with the XII century, in different variants, among which one later on (XVth century), published only in the midst of the last century. The most common variant that can be found in the printed books, seems to have an author, the Bishop Theodore of Cyzicus, a correspondent, among others, of emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Although these rhymes, that pretend to portray in a naïve and obsolete metaphor, the character of each echos, have been considered, in the first scientific printed anthology, as „barren and dull (uninspired)” (illos [...] inanes et inficetos), they are still able to transmit the echo of the theological conception in connection with music’s role of spiritual loftiness of music within the Christian cult, the way it is encountered in the first writings of the Fathers of Church, as well as other authors close to our days, such as Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite.

  2. ELENA CHIRCEV – Genul cromatic în cărțile tipărite de Macarie Ieromonahul.

    ABSTRACT

    For the history of the Byzantine music in Romania, the name of Macarie the Hieromonk is synonymous with the printing of the first books of ecclesiastical music written in Romanian: Theoreticonul, Anastasimatarul and Irmologhionul, published in Vienna in 1823. The given paper aims at presenting the chromatic genre in all the above mentioned volumes, starting from the manner in which the theoretical aspects have been presented in Theoreticonul and continuing with the research of the content of the melodic formulae out of which the chants of the chromatic genre are composed in these collections. The comparative analysis between both the initial formulae and those pertaining to cadence from Macarie’s Anastasimatarul and the original Greek formulae by Petru Efesiul emphasize the importance a language bears on the structuring of the melodic discourse, but also the contribution of the Romanian psalm singers to the perpetuation of the Byzantine tradition.

  3. MELANIA-ELENA NAGY – Genul cromatic în podobiile glasurilor.

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this paper is to present the diverse manner in which the chromatic genre occurs in the podoben (prosomia) melodies, using examples taken mainly from the manuscripts kept in Cluj-Napoca libraries. Beside the frequent case of the chromatic second authentic mode exchanging scale with its plagal, there are also podobens in diatonic modes borrowing scales of the chromatic modes. We found Romanian manuscripts and also Greek ones containing series of podobens for all eight modes. Each of these podobens has a number of variants, as reflected in the chosen manuscripts and printed books. The oral tradition influence is evident once more even when we are dealing with a written repertoire, such as the one analysed in this paper.

  4. DIMOSTHENIS SPANOUDAKIS – A statistical approach of the chromaticity. The sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος – Today, a tomb holds Him in the new and old notation.

    ABSTRACT

    The present study proposes an interdisciplinary approach (Musicology and Mathematics – Statistic) which has to do with the analysis to the Byzantine Music through the research in manuscripts with new and old notation. More specifically, we use a mathematicallystatistically informed approach to investigate chromaticity in the sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος – Today, a tomb holds Him which is chanted as the first idiomelon of the Lauds of Mattins of Holy Saturday and it is in the second (B’) mode with finalis Di.
    According to the measurements of this study in the sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος, some conclusions for the chromaticity and the dominating notes in the old sticheraric genre arise; In the new notation dominating notes are melurgicaly-compositionally strengthened with the usual repetition via ison (Graphs 1-1[a-c]) and with the usual extension of their duration through additive duration marks (Graphs 2- 2[a-c]); Dominating notes (Δεσπόζοντες φθόγγοι) have a direct relation with the microstructural (syllables) and mesostructural (kola) verbal units of the hymnographic text, since they usually function as their first note.
    In new and old notation, the parts of the exegesis where Chourmouzios uses the soft chromatic scale correspond to the parts of the D 564 where the metrophonic structure focuses on notes G# and b / Vou and Di. In the same way, the parts of the interpretation where Chourmouzios uses the intense chromatic scale correspond to the parts of the D 564 where the metrophonic structure focuses on notes E and a / Ni and Ga. This means that in the second mode the metrophonic structure indicates the modal oscillations we see in the slow exegesis; It is about an indirect way of suggesting-showing the modulations since those are not explicitly noted (with phthorai) in the musical manuscript. These modulations or better modal oscillations will be easily noticedrecognized by an expert in old notation and oral tradition like the Three Teachers.

II. Ornamentica în muzica românească de tradiție bizantină

  1. VASILE VASILE – Concepția lui Anton Pann privind glasurile și ornamentica muzicală.

    ABSTRACT

    The Chrisantic reform has established, among other things, the division of the eighth into 68 elements, as the musician Hrisant de Madyt had anticipated. The Byzantine eighth according to Euclid and adopted by the Greeks had 36 elements, while Helmholtz’s eighth had 54. Eventually, an international committee decided the division of the eighth into 72 in 1881. Anton Pann replaced the division of the eighth into 68 elements with that of 22 elements; the seconds consisted of 2, 3 and 4 elements which he called: ton mic, ton mare, ton şi mai mare (small/low ton, high/large ton and larger/higher ton). In terms of modes, he will introduce the division of the eight achos into the two categories ihos şi ihos plaghios and we can remark on the use in his creation of expressive modulations; we owe him the introduction in the Byzantine music of certain modes which are specific of Romanian folk music, such as the famous hisar scale in the well-known Doxology, composed in a Dorian mode with the fourth degree which is raised. He is the first to use the major – minor parallel scales in psaltic music, frequently occurring in Romanian folk music. He will also introduce the oriental scales in religious music in Romanian: muştaar, nisabur and the enharmonique, especially the protovaris – întâiul greu, which was awarded certain weigh. The ornamentation in Anton Pann’s music is characterized by simplicity and the elimination of the melismes which did not play a significant role and he takes into account a certain specific expressiveness illustrated by the Romanian terms of which some were invented by him: grabnic şi zăbavnic. The Western terms suggest new manners of adapting the ornamentation; he introduced certain specific terms and their Romanian translation: largo – pe larg, andante – mai domol, argon – îndoit, allegretto – iutişor, domol şi dulce; he also found in Romanian equivalent terms for the ornamentation signs: psifiston – ton hotărât, omalon – neted, endofon – glas înăuntru a.s.o.

  2. Pr. VASILE GRĂJDIAN – Ornamentica în cântarea bisericească de tradiție bizantină din Transilvania. Stihirile de la Vecernie la Doamne strigat-am, glas 5.

    ABSTRACT

    Previous musicology research established the kinship of the traditional Orthodox Church singing in Transylvania with the church music of Byzantine tradition, to which were added over time a series of regional folk influences. An mportant collection of songs for the church singing in Transylvania is the book of Church Songs published in 1890 in Vienna by Father Dimitrie Cunţan (1837-1910) from Sibiu - that is until today a defining landmark for the liturgical singing of the Orthodox Church in Transylvania.
    Other research – including many audio records – have shown that in the practice of the liturgical chant in the Transylvanian Orthodox parishes there is a great melodic variety for every type of song, compared with the patterns recorded in the Dimitrie Cunţan’s book of Church Songs. The interpretation performed by the different Transylvanian church singers is often characterized by a rich ornamentation, contributing in an important measure to achieve that melodic variety.
    This study aims to compare the melodic model proposed by Dimitrie Cunţan in his book for the Stichera of the 5th Tone to the "Lord, I have cried" of the Vesper with some haracteristic interpretations, transcribed from 54 more recent records available. The examples chosen are trying to highlight specific types or styles of ornamentation and their influence on the general melodic profile of that song – from close variations until more far variations, in comparison with the model of Dimitrie Cunţan.

  3. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ – Semnele hironomice în Stihirarele în notație cucuzeliană din Arhivele Naționale Iași (ANI).

    ABSTRACT

    The present paper aims at presenting the cheironomic signs in some exemplary manuscripts to be found at the National Archives in Iaşi (NAI); these documents are four Sticheraria. The first codex is Ms. in Greek no. 198, Sticherarion syntomon, author: Petros Peloponnesios, in transitional koukouzelian notatation, not dated, the copying place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the last quarter of the XVIIIth century or in the first decade of the 19th century. The next document is Ms. 203 NAI, a Sticherarion- Kalophonicon in Greek, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development. Ms. 203 is not dated, the publication place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the last decade of the XVIIIth century or in the first decade of the XIXth century. Both mentioned manuscripts come from the Holy Mother of God Church in the town of Roman. The other documents are two unreported manuscripts: Mss. 204 and 206. Ms. in Greek 204 NAI, Sticherarion-Kalophonicon, author Crysaphes the Younger, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, not dated, the copying place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the first half of the 18th last quarter of the 18th century. Ms. in Greek no. 206 NAI is a Sticherarion- Kalophonicon, author Germanos of the New Patra, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, copied at the Iviron Monastery by Kir Giakoumis in 1736.
    In Ms. 198 NAI, in transitional koukouzelian notation, the number of cheironomic signs is relativelly small, because this type of notation is more synthetic. The megalai hypostaseis used in Ms. 198 are: antichenoma, psifiston, varia, omalon, eteron, paraklitiki, tromikon, piasma, lighisma, apoderma.
    In Ms. 203, 204, 206, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, apart from the signs adopted from the Chrysantean notation (antichenoma, psifiston, varia, omalon, eteron), it appears a large number of megalai hypostaseis like: lighisma, piasma, tromikon, uranisma followed by thematismos eso with the syllable ne underneath, xironclasma, eteroparakalesma, psifistoparakalesma, the ftora thematismos esso, thes kai apothes.

III. Teorie și analiză

  1. MARIA ALEXANDRU – Observations on the diastematic principles in Byzantine musical notations, with emphasis on Gregorios Mpounes Alyates’ method of metrophonia, and some links to analogous phenomena in Western Chant.

    ABSTRACT

    The starting point of our investigation is Oliver Strunk’s observation about the major importance of the adoption of diastematy in Middlebyzantine notation (Specimina notationum antiquiorum, ΜΜΒ VII, Pars Suppletoria, Copenhagen 1966, p. 1).
    The paper begins with a brief reference to the diastematy in the Hermoupolis-Notation, and some considerations on the gradual change from adiastematic Palaeobyzantine notation to diastematic Middlebyzantine neumes in comparison with the development of diastematic notations in Western Chant (part I with Ex. 1-8).
    In part II with Ex. 9-16, focus is shifted on the teaching of the Protopapadike, the later Papadikai and other theoretical texts about the intervals and the notion of metrophonia (intervallic counting, in different levels of theoretical and practical application), which represents a multi-stratified key-concept for the understanding of diastematy in Byzantine musical tradition.
    Part III with Ex. 17-24 concentrates on issues concerning the preparation of a critical edition of Gregorios Mpounes Alyates’ wellknown didactic Method of metrophonia Ne, houtōs oun anabaine (first part of XVth cent.), which forms a precious guide both for the investigation of diastematy and musical texture, and represents a stable element of the late Papadike, transmitted up to the beginning of the XIXth century.

  2. CARMEN DURA – Evoluţia exighisirii cântărilor în Anastasimatarul lui Anton Pann.

    ABSTRACT

    This study aims to clarify the process of chant adaptation to the Romanian language. What did Anton Pann understand by adaptation? What are the limits of this pattern and what does Anton Pann see as innovation? To answer these questions, I compare the development of chant exegesis at Anton Pann based on a complete analysis of two stichera and other three examples. More exactly, I compare and contrast three musical sources: 185th - 198th Greek Manuscript, Library of the Romanian Patriarchate, 741st - 527th Greek Manuscript, 1853-1854, BAR, Anton Pann's Romanian Anastasimatarion, 1854. The study finds that, for Anton Pann, this process has the meaning of adapting the music to specific Romanian standards, on the one hand, and creating a new song, which preserves the structure, the beginning and the end, on the other hand. The study also notes Anton Pann’s interest in highlighting the expressivity of the song.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef: Prof. univ. dr. Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Senior Editor: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi

Conf. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte Plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. dr. asoc. Maria Alexandru, Universitatea „Aristotle”, Thessaloniki, Grecia

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu Dediu, Universitatea Naţională de Muzică Bucureşti

Echipa redacţională:

Lect. univ. dr. Irina Zamfira Dănilă

Lect. univ. dr. Rosina Caterina Filimon

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron

Coperta: Bogdan Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 12 RO

Prezentul volum cuprinde, pe de o parte, comunicări ştiinţifice prezentate la Simpozionul naţional de muzicologie desfăşurat sub genericul Identitate şi contextualitate stilistică în muzica românească (Ediţia a V-a Iaşi 2011) iar pe de altă parte lucrări cu tematică diversă elaborate în cadrul doctoranturii. Majoritatea autorilor sunt din Iaşi (Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” sau Colegiul Naţional „Octav Băncilă”) dar au fost cuprinşi şi colaboratori din Bucureşti Universitatea Naţională de Muzică), Cluj-Napoca (Academia de Muzică „Gheorghe Dima”), Braşov (Universitatea Transilvania – Facultatea de muzică) şi Constanţa (Universitatea „Ovidius”, Facultatea de Arte).
Menţionăm că revista apare în variantă bilingvă româno-engleză, traducerile fiind realizate prin grija autorilor. Precizăm totodată că, pentru a conferi unitate volumului, am folosit şi de această dată - ca şi în cazul celorlalte volume deja apărute - în redactarea notelor de subsol sau bibliografice indicaţiile oferite de lucrarea TEHNICA SCRIERII ACADEMICE semnată de Şerban C. Andronescu, apărută la Editura Fundaţiei „România de Mâine”, Bucureşti 1997.

CUPRINS

A. Comunicări ştiinţifice prezentate la Simpozionul naţional de muzicologie – Identitate şi contextualitate stilistică în muzica românească, ediţia a V-a, 2011

  1. Carmen Chelaru: Muzica românească în secolul 20: Cum? Unde? De ce?

    REZUMAT

    Cultura muzicala romaneasca exista si nu exista in Europa. Intre cauzele care ii reduc „vizibilitatea” se numara: volumul scazut sau chiar lipsa informatiilor; neintegrarea bazelor de date in circuitul international de specialitate datorita lipsei de comunicare intr-o limba de circulatie.
    Comparand genuri de muzica romaneasca cu genuri similare din cultura europeana, constatam o corespondenta valorica si de limbaj spontana si independenta totodata. Remediu: largirea canalelor de comunicare in dublu sens.

  2. Laura Vasiliu: Influenţa culturii muzicale central-europene asupra componisticii româneşti moderne. Studiu de caz: Pascal Bentoiu.

    REZUMAT

    Impulsul configurării stilurilor naţionale moderne, cu influenţă decisivă, pe scară largă, a tehnicii de compoziţie bartókiene, avangarda dodecafonică cu întreg universul stilistic al modernităţii vehemente, deschis de A Doua Şcoală Vieneză, structurile clasicismului muzical german, reeditate în valurile neoclasice / postmoderne ale secolului XX – sunt principalele direcţii de influenţă ale culturii muzicale central-europene asupra componisticii bucureştene, prin extensie, româneşti. Important discipol al maestrului Mihail Jora (ale cărui studii în Germania au fost decisive pentru profilul său creator dar şi pentru conţinutul şcolii de compoziţie condusă timp de decenii la Bucureşti), Pascal Bentoiu îşi configurează componistica pe baza principiilor clasice germane: rigoarea scriiturii muzicale, coerenţa formei, dramaturgia simfonică grandioasă, spiritul universalist al inspiraţiei, tematicii, deschiderilor spirituale..

  3. Luminiţa Duţică: Pascal Bentoiu – Eminesciana III. „Concert pentru orchestră” sau disimularea unei simfonii?

    REZUMAT

    Orientarea stilistică de tip neoclasic a generat un concept componistic de sinteză, în care structurile arhitectonice şi genurile muzicale aparţinând tradiţiei europene occidentale au fuzionat cu noile gramatici seriale, modale sau serial-modale dezvoltate pe parcursul secolului XX. Fiind prin definiţie un „hibrid” compoziţional, concertul pentru orchestră – consacrat prin modelul bartókian dar şi prin ciclul celor opt lucrări de referinţă ale lui Petrassi – a intrat de timpuriu în vizorul compozitorilor români, Pascal Bentoiu fiind unul dintre cei care au accentuat, din perspectiva lexicului modal-serial, dimensiunea simfonică a genului.

  4. Gheorghe Duţică: „Elogiul simetriei”. O viziune a compozitorului Remus Georgescu.

    REZUMAT

    Deseori, compoziţia muzicală ascultă de un mecanism generativ predeterminat ce ia forma unui algoritm sau matrice cu potenţial de acoperire strategică, macrotemporală. În Concertul pentru orchestră de coarde, compozitorul Remus Georgescu reuşeşte o remarcabilă performanţă componistică, generându-şi întregul discurs muzical prin aportul exclusiv al unui mod-structură, a cărui „punere în timp” reflectă cu acuitate o serie de laborioase şi rafinate simetrii palindromice.

  5. Petruţa Coroiu: Muzica lui Aurel Stroe: „Dorul de cer”.

    REZUMAT

    Pentru mai mult de un deceniu, am avut privilegiul subiectivităţii în ceea ce priveşte personalitatea maestrului Aurel Stroe. Fără a neglija analiza muzicală, am încercat întotdeauna să formulez – în cuvinte efemere – complexitatea sufletului său, aşa cum l-am cunoscut în ultimii 15 ani de viaţă. Sufletul unui artist este la fel de important ca şi muzica sa, pentru că arta doar reflectă resursele creative interioare ale personalităţii umane. Aurel Stroe a ştiut să-şi dăruiască sufletul, viziunile, compoziţiile, gândurile sale. S-a dăruit pe sine însuşi, nu doar lucrurile sale. Principala sa preocupare asupra ontologiei a devenit esenţa gândirii sale. Iată de ce toate aceste amintiri au rezistat în timp şi continuă să trăiască şi astăzi în sufletele nostre.

  6. Tatiana Oltean: Viziuni moderne asupra mitului lui Orfeu în cultura muzicală românească. Lira lui Orfeu de Tudor Feraru şi Orfeuridice de Şerban Marcu.

    REZUMAT

    Investigaţia de faţă îşi propune să aducă în centrul atenţiei două lucrări muzicale recente – baletul pentru cor şi ansamblu cameral orfeuridice de Şerban Marcu şi poemul coregrafic Lira lui Orfeu de Tudor Feraru. Cei doi autori sunt tineri reprezentanţi ai şcolii clujene de compoziţie. Cele două partituri, care valorifică creator mitul lui Orfeu, prezintă o serie de particularităţi de limbaj, structură şi abordare a mitului care le disting în peisajul muzicii româneşti contemporane, atât în cadrul genului de balet cât mai ales în contextul muzicii autohtone asociate mitologiei antice greceşti. Cercetarea se apleacă şi asupra celor două puneri în scenă, analizând soluţiile coregrafice datorate Melindei Jakab, dar şi simbolistica particulară a mitului, în fiecare dintre cele două partituri, respective realizări scenice.

  7. Irina Zamfira Dănilă: Aspecte ale creaţiei liturgice contemporane din Republica Moldova – Liturghia de Vladimir Ciolac şi Imnele Sfintei Liturghii a lui Ioan Gură de Aur de Teodor Zgureanu.

    REZUMAT

    Studiul de faţă se referă la două creaţii liturgice corale reprezentative din Republica Moldova: Liturghia de Vladimir Ciolac şi Imnele Sfintei Liturghii a lui Ioan Gură de Aur de Teodor Zgureanu. Prin intermediul analizei muzicale complexe, îşi propune să identifice posibile surse intonaţionale de inspiraţie psaltică utilizate ca linie melodică în aceste liturghii şi, de asemenea, să evidenţieze şi mijloacele muzicale specifice, folosite de autori, pentru prelucrarea acesteia.

B. Studii cu tematică diversă concepute în cadrul cercetării doctorale

  1. Brînduşa Tudor: Clasic şi romantic în Sonata în la minor op. 164 D 537 de Franz Schuber.

    REZUMAT

    În acest articol am încercat să evidenţiem complexitatea şi valoarea sonatei în la minor op. 164 D 537 de Franz Schubert, urmărind două perspective: structurală şi semiotică - a analizelor discursului muzical, subliniind legătura cu tradiţia (elementele clasice) şi înnoirile aduse de către compozitor (elementele romantice). Sonata în la minor op. 164 D 537 dezvăluie o concepţie proprie clar definită atât asupra genului, cât şi a formei de sonată, Schubert dovedind o cunoaştere profundă a tiparelor tradiţionale, pe care le modelează însă conform gândirii personale, de conduită romantică.

  2. Mariana Frăţilă: Curente şi tendinţe în muzica europeană din prima jumătate a secolului XX.

    REZUMAT

    Lucrarea îşi propune o prezentare panoramică a muzicii europene din prima jumătate a secolului XX. Pentru facilitarea înţelegerii tabloului muzical al perioadei respective în întreaga lui complexitate, s-a plecat de la premizele de evoluţie existente la sfârşitul secolului XIX şi începutul următorului. Conţinutul lucrării este rezultatul unei activităţi de cercetare documentară privind evoluţia muzicii în Postromantism şi Modernism. Din datele obţinute din bibliografie, partituri şi materiale audio, s-a putut configura / reconstitui imaginea plurivalentă a fenomenului muzical desfăşurat de-a lungul a mai bine de jumătate de veac extrem de fecund atât sub aspectul diversităţii mijloacelor de realizare, cât şi sub cel al varietăţii stilistice şi expresive. Tocmai datorită multitudinii căilor de creaţie componistică, spaţiul limitat al materialului nu a permis expunerea exhaustivă a procedeelor la care au apelat toţi creatorii de muzică din perioada avută în atenţie, dar s-a reuşit redarea cu fidelitate a imaginii de ansamblu a acelor curente şi tendinţe – în simultaneitatea şi/sau derularea lor – care nu numai că au lăsat o amprentă profundă asupra muzicii primei jumătăţi a secolului XX, dar au deschis şi perspective interesante şi multiple pentru evoluţia ulterioară a muzicii.

  3. Roxana-Luiza Moldovan: Valenţele unei naturi (a)tipice – Erik Satie

    REZUMAT

    Studiul este centrat pe două părţi: I. Valenţele unei naturi atipice - Erik Satie ; II. Satie şi predilecta sa vocaţie : constantele de tip procedural.
    I. Valenţele unei naturi atipice - Erik Satie schiţează portretul componistic al artistului. Printre altele, este surprinsă modalitatea prin care propria-i natură interioară îşi pune amprenta asupra opţiunilor detectate la nivel procedural.
    II. Satie şi predilecta sa vocaţie: constantele de tip procedural conferă un prim-plan al parametrilor frecvent utilizaţi în opusurile lui Satie: disonanţa, libertatea metrică, parodia agogică, tehnica segmentelor.

  4. Daniela Doroşincă: Repere teoretice şi interpretative în Liturghia modală de Achim Stoia

    REZUMAT

    Achim Stoia scrie in martie 1937 o Liturghie pentru cor mixt, monumentala prin constructia sa si prin aparatul vocal complex, cu o armonie tono-modala diatonica cu intonatii major-minore si o scriitura armonico-polifonica in care sunt prezente imitatiile si intrarile in stretto, pedalele si isonul preluate din muzica psaltica, precum si o metrica in care se combina structurile binare cu cele ternare. Universul modal popular in care plamadeste expresiva Liturghie, combinat cu un expresiv si complex simt armonic ii confera unicitatea si valoarea proprie numai acelor creatii menite sa dainuie peste veacuri. O particularitate a compozitorului Achim Stoia cu ajutorul careia cladeste arhitecturi sonore monumentale este aceea ca in Liturghie trateaza liniile vocale asemanator celor instrumentale, iar discursul melodic rezulta din inlantuirile armonice si nu din desfasurarea pe orizontala a melodiei, cum se intampla in lucrarile liturgice ale altor compozitori de muzica corala religioasa, iar finalurile sunt construite intotdeauna expansiv pe acorduri majore.
    Complexitatea limbajului muzical se rasfrange asupra actului de creatie interpretativ impunand diferite tehnici de executie, plecand de la maniera de cant pe legato in cantarile serafice (Imnul Heruvic), atingand sonoritati subtile prin poco staccato sau cvasi-recitativ (Sfinte Dumnezeule) si culminand cu supletea unui detachèe desprins din peisajul muzicii baroce in cantarile ample (Ca pre Imparatul, Sfant Domnul Savaot). Liturghia modala ramane in constiinta muzicala romaneasca un model de perfectiune a limbajului armonic si modal specific compozitorului Achim Stoia, dar si ca tehnica de constructie polifonica aplicata.

  5. Dorina Iuşcă: Starea de anxietate asociată interpretării muzicale în public

    REZUMAT

    Starea de anxietate asociată intepretării muzicale în public (AAIMP) reprezintă unul din principalii factori psihologici care condiţionează nivelul artistic al interpreţilor muzicii culte. Incidenţa semnificativă a acestei stări în rândul muzicienilor amatori şi profesionişti, precum şi impactul deosebit pe care îl are asupra dezvoltării unei cariere în interpretarea muzicală au atras atenţia comunităţii ştiinţifice internaţionale. Prin urmare, în ultimii ani s-au realizat cercetări importante care au concretizat un tablou informaţional vast referitor la factorii care influenţează apariţia anxietăţii pe scenă şi la strategiile terapeutice de control şi reducere a acesteia. Studiul de faţă reprezintă o trecere în revistă a principalelor descoperiri.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef: Prof. univ. dr. Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi

Conf. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte Plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. dr. asoc. Maria Alexandru, Universitatea „Aristotle”, Thessaloniki, Grecia

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu Dediu, Universitatea Naţională de Muzică Bucureşti

Echipa redacţională:

Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron

Coperta: Bogdan Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 11 RO

Prezentul volum cuprinde lucrari elaborate în perioada care a trecut de la publicarea volumului ARTES 9-10 (2010) sau chiar anterioara acesteia, mai ales în cadrul studiilor doctorale sau post doctorale. Tematica, destul de diversificata si acoperind o sfera larga de preocupari, fost grupata în trei mari capitole: 1) Analize structurale si stilistice, 2) Analize stilisticointerpretative si 3) Analize estetice &i sociologice.
Majoritatea autorilor sunt din Iasi (Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” sau Colegiul National „Octav Bancila”) dar au fost cuprinsi si colaboratori din Bucuresti (Universitatea Nationala de Muzica) si Brasov (Universitatea Transilvania – Facultatea de muzica). Mentionam ca începând cu acest numar revista va aparea în varianta bilingva româno-engleza, traducerile fiind realizate prin grija însisi autorilor articolelor.
Precizam totodata ca, pentru a conferi unitate volumului, am folosit si de aceasta data - ca si în cazul celorlalte volume deja aparute - în redactarea notelor de subsol sau bibliografice indicatiile oferite de lucrarea TEHNICA SCRIERII ACADEMICE semnata de Serban C. Andronescu, aparuta la Editura Fundatiei „România de Mâine”, Bucuresti 1997.

CUPRINS

1) Analize structurale şi stilistice

  1. Liliana Gherman: Opera Oedip de George Enescu şi opera-oratoriu Meşterul Manole de Sigismund Toduţă - două ipostaze complementare ale spiritualităţii româneşti

    REZUMAT

    Pornind de la o afirmatie facuta candva de Franz Liszt precum ca „Poetul sau artistul reusesc cateodata sa rezume nazuinta spre frumos a unui popor sau a unei epoci”, prezentul text s-a concentrat asupra a doua ample lucrari vocal-simfonice - opera Oedip de George Enescu si opera-oratoriu Mesterul Manole de Sigismund Toduta – a caror prima auditie a avut loc la distanta de aproape jumatate de veac (1936 si, respectiv 1985), in perioade distincte ale evolutiei muzicii romanesti dar si ale configuratiei culturale si politice a poporului roman in general. Fara ambitia unei cuprinderi exhaustive, sunt punctate cateva caracteristici definitorii ale acestor doua lucrari (apropiate valoric in opinia criticii muzicale sub specia capodoperei), prin prisma unor consideratii estetico-filosofice vizand spiritualitatea romaneasca in ansamblul evolutiei sale dar si particularizata pe etape delimitate conjunctural.

  2. Loredana Iaţeşen: Tendinţe expresioniste în opera românească din primele decenii ale secolului XX

    REZUMAT

    Prezenta expresionismului in muzica romaneasca din primele decenii ale secolului XX nu constituie o noutate, gratie cercetarilor muzicologice minutioase apartinand Clemansei Liliana Firca. Amintim sectiunile dedicate manifestarii particulare a acestei orientari in volumele Directii in muzica romaneasca (1900-1930), Modernitate si avangarda in muzica ante- si interbelica (1900-1940) sau studiul Rezonante ale esteticii expresionismului in creatia muzicala romaneasca, ce au demonstrat viabilitatea fenomenului in anumite creatii din sfera orchestrala (suita), scenica (baletul), si ale caror ecouri s-au resimtit partial in genul de opera.
    Pornind de la observatiile pertinente ale cercetatoarei, in paginile ce urmeaza ne propunem sa evidentiem adaptarea trasaturilor curentului european in spatiul scenic romanesc din prima jumatate a secolului XX, pe linia realismului exacerbat din Napasta (Sabin Dragoi, 1927), a influentei lui Igor Stravinski cu al sau stille barbaro voalat in O noapte furtunoasa (Paul Constantinescu, 1934), pana la particularitatile muzical-dramatice care atesta expresionismul sublimat din capodopera Oedip (George Enescu, 1931)

  3. Cristina Maria Bostan: Dmitri Şostakovici – exponent al muzicii naţionale ruse în secolul XX - Opera Lady Macbeth din Mţensk, între tradiţie şi modernitate

    REZUMAT

    Opera Lady Macbeth din Mtensk este o drama muzicala axata pe ideea de compasiune fata de conditia femeii in societatea contemporana. Ea poate fi privita, din punct de vedere al subiectului, ca o tragica metafora. Sostakovici a considerat-o ca o „tragedie-satirica” in care impleteste cu maiestrie tragicul cu sarcasmul si grotescul. Accentuarea laturii „materiale”, a degradarii omului pana la coborarea lui la nivelul purei fiziologii constituie o parabola. Compozitorul accentueaza tocmai momentele cele mai dure, bestiale, crimele, incercand astfel o analogie „metaforica” intre elementele artistice expresioniste si realitatea de cosmar pe care o traiau el si compatriotii sai.

  4. Claudia Nezelschi: Opera Zamolxe de Liviu Glodeanu la confluenţa între muzică, matematică şi teologie

    REZUMAT

    In acest studiu se face o prezentare a operei Zamolxe de Liviu Glodeanu, accentuand asupra interferentelor scriiturii cu universul componistic al lui O. Messiaen, asupra notiunilor matematice subiacente unor structuri muzicale si asupra intelesurilor teologice pe care ethosul muzicii le pune in lumina, plecand de la textul poetico-aforistic al lui Lucian Blaga.

  5. Ciprian Ion: Constantin Georgescu - regăsirea unui destin şi a unui univers sonor

    REZUMAT

    Continutul acestui articol face referire la personalitatea si creatia unui muzician, ale carui realizari au intrat intr-un con de umbra din motive greu de inteles. Autorul isi propune readucerea numelui sau in atentia lumii muzicale, argumentand acest demers printr-o scurta introspectie in creatia sa, reliefand acele trasaturi stilistice si componistice ce scot in evidenta rigoarea si profunzimea compozitiilor sale. Cele cateva referiri biografice legate de cariera lui Constantin Georegescu sunt menite a contura cadrul istoric, social si cultural al primei jumatati a secolului XX, aspect important in intelegerea influentelor pe care limbajul sau muzical le-a suferit.

  6. Anca Leahu: Structuri sintactice şi timbrale în Simfonia II – „Aliaje”, de Anton Zeman

    REZUMAT

    Simfonia a II-a – „Aliaje”, de Anton Zeman, conceputa intr-o singura parte, reda, prin limbajul, tehnica de compozitie si grafismul moderne utilizate, o ipostaza a viziunii autorului asupra spiritualitatii romanesti. Lucrarea se naste dintr-un proces de evolutie transformationala a zonelor cu efect global, cu manifestari diverse de densitate sonora, de constitutie tehnica sau de natura timbrala. Mai multe personaje sonore de natura sintactica, dramaturgica sau timbrala dau glas Aliajelor intr-un cadru simfonic complex.

  7. Zamfira Dănilă: Prelucrarea monodiei bizantine, postbizantine şi a melodiilor de colindă psaltică în creaţia lui Viorel Munteanu

    REZUMAT

    In lucrarea vocal-simfonica Glasurile Putnei, Viorel Munteanu s-a inspirat din melosul bizantin pastrat in manuscrisele Scolii muzicale de la Putna. El a preluat motive melodice din doua cantari bizantine reprezentative, apartinand compozitorilor romani Dometian Vlahu si Evstatie Protopsaltul, pe care le-a prelucrat cu mijloace muzicale specifice. Autorul a reusit astfel sa creeze, pe baza vechilor canoane, o inventie monodica originala sustinuta cu ajutorul isoanelor, spatializarea fluxului sonor prin incredintarea motivelor melodice la diverse instrumente, imbinarea cantarii antifonice cu cea heterofonica. Prin Glasurile Putnei, Viorel Munteanu recreeaza spiritul si atmosfera de rugaciune si meditatie, de inaltare spirituala specifice vietii monahale.
    Si in Suita a II-a de Craciun Viorel Munteanu se inspira din muzica veche bisericeasca (in piesa Fecioara astazi) ca si din colinda veche, arhaica, folclorica sau de origine psaltica (in Tu esti lumina cea sfanta). In lucrarea Strop de ler, Viorel Munteanu prelucreaza cu mijloace armonice si polifonice de factura modala colinde folclorice, laice si religioase pentru coruri de doua si trei voci egale, spre a fi utilizate mai ales de tineri, in scoli.

  8. Andrei Hrubaru-Roată: Fibonacci perennis - De la W.A. Mozart la L. Bernstein

    REZUMAT

    Este unanim acceptata ideea ca un fir al Ariadnei leaga monumentele Egiptului de templele si sculpturile antice grecesti, de pictura Renasterii si catedralele gotice, de pictura lui Picasso si arhitectura lui Le Corbusier, iar acest fir este de fapt o proportie, Proportia de aur. Daca aceasta are relevanta si in artele temporale, in muzica in speta, este o problema mai greu de transat. Intuitia spatiului si a timpului, desi legate intre ele, prezinta totusi particularitati de netagaduit.
    In acest studiu raspundem afirmativ la aceasta dilema, dar nu de pe pozitia esteticianului, ci de pe cea a interpretului care, avand privilegiul de a fi cel care ridica primul dintre multele valuri ce ascund taina creatiei incifrata in pagina partiturii, „jucand” misterul in fata publicului, are obligatia de a intelege, cat e posibil, si pe cale rationala, in ce constau dedesupturile subtile ale acesteia, in ce masura au ele forta sa produca asupra ascultatorului efectual imaginat de creator. Mizand pe valoarea consacrata istoric a celor doua lucrari puse in discutie, apartinand unor reprezentanti de seama a doua epoci diferite, W.A. Mozart si L. Bernstein, si pe corectitudinea judecatilor noastre, speram sa fi contribuit, chiar si in mica masura la consolidarea punctului de vedere pomenit mai sus.

2) Analize stilistico-interpretative

  1. Dorina Iuşcă, Viorel Munteanu: Condiţionări situaţionale ale evaluării interpretării muzicale

    REZUMAT

    Evaluarea interpretarii vocale sau instrumentale solistice a muzicii culte reprezinta o activitate complexa asupra careia actioneaza o multitudine de factori psihologici ce îsi pun amprenta în obtinerea unui anumit nivel artistic. Cei mai multi dintre acestia sunt asociati trasaturilor individuale ale solistului, ei referindu-se mai ales la interactiunea dintre aptitudinile muzicale înnascute si efortul depus pentru dezvoltarea lor prin intermediul antrenamentului muzical. Recent însa, literatura de specialitate a evidentiat faptul ca aprecierea nivelului muzical al unui interpret este conditionata si de o serie de factori externi precum: modul de masurare a interpretarii, formatul în care interpretarea este prezentata în fata evaluatorilor, experienta muzicala a evaluatorilor, durata audierii interpretului, prezenta acompaniamentului, alegerea repertoriului si cunoasterea lui de catre evaluatori, aspectul vizual al interpretilor. Studiul de fata îsi propune o viziune sintetica asupra acestor factori.

  2. Andrei Enoiu-Pânzariu: Sonatele beethoveniene pentru pian – repere editoriale

    REZUMAT

    Acest articol doreste sa vina in intampinarea interpretilor, care vor sa abordeze cele 32 de sonate pentru pian de Ludwig van Beethoven. Vom analiza si comenta unele dintre cele mai importante editii, ingrijite de interpreti consacrati, ce au influentat viziunile interpretate ale generatiilor ce i-au urmat. Editiile Urtext sunt considerate cele mai corecte si complete editii. Majoritatea sustin ca reproduc textul original, bazate fie pe manuscris, fie pe primele editii. O importanta deosebita o au insa editorii, sau mai bine spus ingrijitorii editiilor, ce adauga, de cele mai multe ori, digitatii si note de subsol in care sunt comentate diferite probleme tehnice si interpretative. Prin compararea numeroaselor editii, am descoperit indicatii pretioase ce tin de interpretare. Putem nota editia L. Holle, editata de Franz Liszt, editia G. Schirmer, editata de Hans von Bülow si Sigmund Lebert, si editia Curci editata de Arthur Schnabel.
    In anul 2011 editiile consacrate, sunt editia G. Henle, ingrijita de B.A. Wallner, München, anul 1975, si editia Wiener Urtext Edition, ingrijita de Peter Hauschild, anul 1999. Prin studierea amanuntita a acestor editii, ne putem da seama despre viziunile interpretative asupra sonatelor beethoveniene pentru pian in spatiul central european. In prezent, editiile ingrijite de Franz Liszt, Hans von Bülow respectiv Sigmund Lebert si editia ingrijita de Arthur Schnabel sunt privite de pianisti cu reticenta. Aceasta datorita micilor modificari ale textului, cat si a indicatiilor dinamice si agogice. Cu toate acestea, in urma studierii acestor editii, se pot obtine indicatii interpretative valoroase, ce pun in lumina conceptia interpretativa a pianistului-editor. Datorita varietatii informatiilor, aceste editii reprezinta un text ce trebuie consultat, in toate acele cazuri cand interpretul doreste sa abordeze o noua viziune interpretativa.

  3. Raluca Pânzariu: Aspecte stilistico-interpretative ale pianisticii reflectate în creaţia compozitorului Isaac Albéniz (1860 – 1909)

    REZUMAT

    Lucrarea prezinta cateva elemente cu privire la datele biografice ale compozitorului, clasificarea creatiei in 3 categorii ample. Sunt mentionate mici repere stilistice precum si o scurta analiza structurala si stilistico-interpretativa a lucrarilor Suita España op. 165, 6 Feuilles d’Album pour piano si a Pavanei – Capricho. Articolul se incheie mentionand concluzii generale cu privire la creatia compozitorului Isaac Albeniz si a lucrarii analizate - Suita España op. 165, 6 Feuilles d’Album pour piano.

  4. Ionela Butu: Dissonance op. 34 nr. 13 de S. Rahmaninov. Analiză stilisticointerpretativă

    REZUMAT

    Analiza stilistico-interpretativa a liedului Dissonance op. 34 nr. 13 de S. Rahmaninov, realizata prioritar din perspectiva pianistica, urmareste relevarea unor aspecte ce permit ordonarea semnelor in jurul sensurilor-reper pe fondul carora poate fi inteles mesajul artistic de profunzime al opusului. Coordonatele vizate - specific interpretative - dinamica, agogica, timbralitatea, sonoritatea (forma sonora in relatie cu aceea scrisa) si-au ordonat semnificatiile prin raportare la coerenta ceruta de exigentele ansamblului cameral, cu legile sale proprii de configurare. Inter-relatia lor nuantata stilistic pe fondul amintit face posibil echilibrul arhitectonic integral.
    Intrucat liedul Dissonance face parte din opusurile finale ale genului din creatia compozitorului, am considerat utile observatii de natura sintetica acolo unde contextul a permis insertia lor, cu scopul de a crea mediul semantic necesar intelegerii aspectelor particulare. De asemenea, am realizat trimiteri la lucrari ce prezinta similitudini de scriitura cu lucrarea lui Rahmaninov, in pofida zonelor stilistice diferite in care se situeaza opusurile comparate. Astfel, specificitatea e sesizata mai usor, prin contrast. Un aspect important al studiului l-a reprezentat semnalarea non-coincidentei dintre climax-ul lucrarii si punctul culminant - repere expresive principale pe baza carora poate fi construita veridic interpretarea, intrucat exprima ambitusul expresiv al opusului, dincolo de indicatii de suprafata.

3) Analize estetice şi sociologice

  1. Elena Pîrvu: Modernism sau modernitate?

    REZUMAT

    Daca termenul de modern reprezinta o notiune-cadru, iar modernismul - o atitudine marcata de exagerari si experimentari, modernitatea constituie atat un concept de creatie, cat si o epoca stilistica ce inglobeaza curentele estetice postromantice. Adrian Marino surprinde admirabil esenta modernitatii, in studiul sau despre Modern, Modernism, Modernitate: „A ridica la universal, prin transfigurare si cristalizare creatoare, efemeritatea moderna, aceasta este modernitatea reala si profunda a artei si literaturii si, in acelasi timp, tehnica realizarii acestei modernitati”. In esenta, modernitatea muzicala implica in primul rand desprinderea de semantica expresiva a arcului tensiune-relaxare, generat de functionalitatea armonica si tonala, precum si renuntarea la tematism, principiu fundamental de creatie in muzica tonala.

  2. Rosina Caterina Filimon: Muzica subliminală benefică

    REZUMAT

    Studiul doctoral de fata reprezinta o continuare a comunicarii stiintifice Muzica subliminala, aparuta in revista Artes (Vol. 6, pp. 141-154), in care am prezentat efectele nocive ale mesajelor subliminale ascunse in discursul muzical. In prezenta cercetare, Muzica subliminala benefica, este descrisa utilizarea muzicii subliminale cu scopul de a obtine efecte binefacatoare asupra mintii si organismului uman, cu ajutorul tehnologiei Binaural Beats si Hemi-Sync. Tehnologia Binaural Beats a fost descoperita de catre fizicianul german Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803 – 1879) in anul 1839 si experimentata, cu ajutorul encefalografului, de catre biofizicianul Gerald Oster (1918 – 1993) in anul 1973, la Mount Sinai School of Medicine din New York. Aceasta tehnologie reprezinta o descoperire recenta a muzicoterapiei si o noua tehnica de antrenare a creierului, studiata si experimentata in numeroase centre de cercetare si universitati.
    Procedeul Binaural Beats a fost aplicat de catre Robert Monroe (1915 – 1995) sub denumirea de tehnologia audio Hemi-Sync prin mixarea frecventelor undelor cerebrale cu muzica, sunete din natura, ghidaje verbale rezultand mai mult decat muzica – Metamusic. Acesta alchimie acustica pusa in practica a dat rezultate importante in explorarea si extinderea starii de constiinta, dezvoltarea capacitatii creative, accelerarea proceselor de invatare, imbunatatirea dificultatilor de invatare si de concentrare, in ameliorarea durerii, a starilor de anxietate si depresie, inducerea somnului, hipnozei, meditatiei si relaxarii.

  3. Adrian Leonard Mociulschi: Arta şi comunicarea în masă

    REZUMAT

    Eseul propune o viziune asupra fenomenului artistic din perspectiva contemporana, raportat la transformarile tehnologice care au redimensionat si reproiectat manifestarile artistice, de la picturile rupestre la sonatele lui Beethoven, in campul comunicarii de masa − mainstream-ul instituit de mass media in societatea informationala a secolului XXI. Prin intermediul canalelor de comunicare in masa, mesajul artistic se propaga astazi prin radio, televiziune, Internet etc. fiind receptat de public. Acest fenomen determina ca muzica lui Beethoven sa fie astazi, in egala masura, muzica contemporana − la fel ca si cea a lui Xenakis.

REDACȚIA

Redactor şef: Prof. univ. dr. Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică, Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iaşi

Conf. univ. dr. Victoria Melnic, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte Plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vladimir Axionov, Academia de Muzică Teatru şi Arte Plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. dr. Valentina Sandu Dediu, Universitatea Naţională de Muzică Bucureşti

Echipa redacţională:

Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol

Lect. univ. dr. Diana-Beatrice Andron

Coperta: Bogdan Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.


Coperta Revistei Artes 9-10

Prezentul volum cuprinde comunicări prezentate la Simpozionul naţional de muzicologie desfăşurat la Iaşi, în cadrul Festivalului muzicii româneşti, ediţia a XIII-a, serie nouă, 11-16 octombrie 2009, sub dublul generic „Identitate şi contextualitate în muzica românească contemporană” şi „Ştiinţa muzicii”, precum şi câteva studii primite din ţară sau din străinătate a căror publicare am socotit-o oportună.
Traducerea rezumatelor în limba engleză sau franceză a fost realizată prin grija înşişi autorilor sau de către asist. univ. Maria-Cristina Misievici de la Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”.
Menţionăm totodată că, pentru a conferi unitate volumului, am folosit în redactarea notelor de subsol sau bibliografice indicaţiile oferite de lucrarea TEHNICA SCRIERII ACADEMICE semnată de Şerban C. Andronescu, apărută la Editura Fundaţiei „România de Mâine”, Bucureşti 1997.

CUPRINS

I) Identitate şi contextualitate în muzica românească contemporană

  1. Viorel Munteanu: Roman Vlad 90

    REZUMAT

    Before entering the realm of the analysis and understanding of the way in which the composer Roman Vlad has decoded the evolution of the musical phenomenon as an integrating part of a cultural reality, to the way in which he assumed the new artistic expressions – were they called modernism or postmodernism – , before all this, let us return in our hearts to the Maestro, in love, admiration and gratefulness for his being among us and – as he has taught us for 90 years – for his understanding of his existence not as personal goods, but as a gift from God, destined for the others. Fully aware of his mission, the great composer has meant to tell us that life is beautiful, and that this beauty cannot be understood or lived outside music. This is the reason why his harmonies have been invested with that magical power that we call Music. Let us say that the Maestro's life is full of music just like his music is full of life. His multivalent vocation – that of composer, pianist, musicologist, professor and conference-giver, all of which are parallel careers fulfilled exemplarily along the years – , makes Roman Vlad what George Enescu called "five into one", meaning a cultural and spiritual institution of great authority. We might even call him The Music Man, if we observe the vast creative area where he has been present.
    In the current project Restitutio, we are editing and performing, withing the Romanian Music Festival (13th Edition, Iasi, 11th – 16th October, 2009) his early works, such as: Lieder (lyrics by Lucian Blaga), Lament for piano, Sinfonietta (which was awarded the George Enescu prize in 1943), Cantata for mixed choir and orchestra Dove sei, Elohim? (Where art thou, Elohim?, lyrics by Lucian Blaga), and also the bilingual edition of Intellettuali Romeni a Roma, where the composer evokes some important music personalities in Rome, Italy, and Greater Romania between the two World Wars, as well as his noted friendship with Alfredo Casella and Dinu Lipatti. In other words, The Restitutio Project means to continue to restore the Maestro's entire compositional and musicological output to his original cultural background, an enterprise which began in the early '80s. His vast output stands as a landmark, as the epitome of an exceptional professional, ethical and philosophical conscience that takes on the mission to promote a truly monumental oeuvre in the entire European (and not only !) cultural, musical, spiritual space; it is an oeuvre which has stirred in us a real need for knowledge, a passion in research and the courage to put down our findings in books and studies – books that confess the joy of being the contemporaries of the great musician Roman Vlad.

  2. Laura Vasiliu: Importanţa muzicologiei lui Roman Vlad în contextul ştiinţei muzicale din a doua jumătate a secolului XX

    REZUMAT

    Although he has published a considerable number of volumes on music, many of which have been translated into Romanian, the composer Roman Vlad does not consider himself a musicologist. It's true that his writings don't fit into the categories taken into account by the great European dictionaries, so it is that articles dedicated to musicology do not contain his name. Since I believe this omission can be repaired, I propose an analysis of Roman Vlad's writings along the following first-hand characteristics:

    • Civilising musicology – born of an extensive musical culture and general in nature, directed towards the public, trusting in its education.
    • An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary character (philosophy, religion, aesthetics, history, stylistic and semantic analysis, musical criticism).
    • A concept of balance between the values of tradition and modernity. Integrating tradition in explaining modernity.
    • A composer's musicology with all the qualities of the genre but without its limitations.
    • The scientific character: documentation, argumentative structures, bibliographical references.
    • His selective, objective and critical spirit. The capacity to evaluate, secure in supporting his opinions.
    • The concentric character of his themes and their ongoing development.

    Roman Vlad offers us a post-modern musicological creation avant la lettre, which resonates well with contemporary transdisciplinary culturalist thought, by employing professional arguments that clarify his options and increase his prestige.

  3. Adrian Pop: Stil şi strategie

    REZUMAT

    The essential operation leading to the result called "style" is the choice of certain language elements in order to convey a message, regardless of whether this is the result of a long constructive process, or of spontaneous improvisation. Strategy, too, is a choice, namely that of the means required to reach a purpose related to certain necessities, of which the primary ones are most important. In the art of war, strategy reigns supreme. Politics, as an expression of interests, uses strategy obsessively, up to the moral degradation of the term.
    There are, however, also fundamental necessities representing purposes that are not attainable through strategies, such as, for instance, those related to identity (ethnic, social, professional). These will be achieved through style (in primitive societies the costume, customs etc.). Their diverse forms of manifestations also include the realm of the aesthetics, and therefore the arts as well.
    Language operation can become a purpose in itself, as proven by many examples that emerged especially beginning with the 20th century, when the need was felt for the substantiation of radically different languages than the traditional ones. This emphasized a particular concern for strategy and was cumulated with an obsessive thirst for originality and novelty. Unprecedented innovations incontestably emerged. But the "collateral damages" were equally significant, so that the gap between the artist and the public has become, for some time now, quite alarming.
    A creator should use strategies to harness his intelligence, inventiveness and selectivity; they also constitute part of his originality. These strategies, however, like the language elements used, are secondary in importance to the sincerity of the message that the artist conveys. And in no way could they replace it.

  4. Dan Dediu: Hiperstilul – o încercare de fundamentare a unei metode de compoziţie

    REZUMAT

    The concept of hyperstyle represents in this paper a theoretical frame of a compositional method based on different cathegories of music. One can imagine this hyperstyle like a "style pool", from which the composer chooses own directions of development of the musical language. In this respect, the hyperstyle could be seen as an attitude beyond the phenomenon of musical composition, and not as a "style" in itself.

  5. Alex Vasiliu: Creaţii inedite de Richard Oschanitzky

    REZUMAT

    Richard Oschnitzky left an indelible mark on the counsciousness of Romanian musicians contemporary to him; a great lover of jazz, he cultivated it as a pianist, arranger, composer, as a refined orchestrator and author of film music. The public perceived him in the same way through radio recordings, LPs and numerous TV broadcasts. Benefitting from intense media coverage in the period 1966-1979, these facets of his artistic personality overshadowed his compositions in all genres of academic music.
    Ranging from his teenage years until the last weeks of his life, the sonatas for various instrumental formulas, the string quartets, lied cycles, concerts, missas, cantatas, the oratorium (his last vocal-symphonic project) reveal a complete mastery of classical composition techniques, his empathy with the newest accredited formulas of moulding musical ideas – all this perfectly balanced with the expressiveness and sound/timber sharpness of musical progression.
    As an argument in favour of Richard Oschanitzky's unpublished works, this paper ventures an analytic presentation of the following: Missa Brevis (1956), Scherzo for piano op. 3 (1958), "Cântarea iubirii" (Song of love) (seven songs for baritone, mezzo-soprano and chamber orchestra, op. 4) (1958-1961-1975), String quartet no. 1, op. 8 (1959-1961), "Cântecul norului" (The cloud's song) – 8 lieds for mezzo-soprano, tenor, piano and three percusion groups, Sonata for clarinet and piano (1963), Chamber concerto for piano, winds and percurssion (1963).

  6. Liliana Gherman: Alexandru Paşcanu – In memoriam

    REZUMAT

    This article is intended as a remembrance of Professor and Composer Alexandru Paşcanu on his 20th death anniversary (6th July 2009) and, at the same time, on his 90th birth anniversary (3rd May 2010).
    Alexandru Paşcanu was a prestigious personality of the Romanian musical academia in the latter half of the 20th century; his treatise on Harmony, which has been published several times, still helps entire generations of students nowadays.
    He left behind a valuable, though not very ample, musical output. Let us mention his lovely children's songs – some of which have received international fame, such as Ah, ce bucurie (Oh, What Glee !) and Chindia (The Party Dance) –, his choral poems Bocete străbune (Ancient Laments), Festum hibernum, Iarna pe uliţă (Winter on the Village Road), Aseară recitind pe Eminescu (Reading Eminescu Once More Last Night), chamber pieces like his Ballad for clarinet as well as symphonic works such as Poemul Carpaţilor (A Poem to the Carpathians), Marea Neagră (The Black Sea), Pro Humanitate.

  7. Gheorghe Duţică: O abordare tipologică a invarianţilor structurali în creaţia lui Sigismund Toduţă. (1) Monodia-Heterofonia

    REZUMAT

    The gist of this enterprise consists in the analysis of the archetypal foundation of Sigismund Toduţă's works and in the systematisation / typologisation of the main structural invariants. The phenomenon of recovery / re-contextualisation of musical proto-patterns is rendered by the interaction of such isomorphisms as intonational, rhythmic, harmonic, polyphonic, morphological, syntactic and so on, enforced as matrix models generated by universal principles and laws. Our analyses target: the intonational field (the polygenesis of the sonorous systems: oligochords, heptachords, chromatic-diatonic / chromatic-polymodal polychords, symmetric organisations, etc.); the temporal field (the archetypes – rubato / aulodia; giusto; moto perpetuo; danza, etc.); the field of the fundamental sonorous syntaxes (monody, polyphony, homophony, heterophony – where the writing typologies are personalised by the polysemy of folkloric and liturgical sources belonging to the Romanian, Gregorian and Byzantine musical traditions); the architectonic field (the expositional archetype, the repetitive archetype, the variational archetype – with improvisational, self-generative, cyclic, transformational typologies connected to architectonic models of Renaissance and Baroque origin).

  8. Diana-Beatrice Andron: Ciaccona în viziunea simfonică a lui Anatol Vieru: Simfonia a V-a „Peste vârfuri”

    REZUMAT

    The 5th symphony of Anatol Vieru, on poetry of Mihai Eminescu is, without doubt, a visionary work. At the time of its composing (1985), it was a genuine act of courage, due to the implementation of an original modal concept – where the gravitational and the consonance became operative once again according to the shrill prohibitions of the avant-garde –, and also to the use of the choir in all four parts of the symphony, an extremely rare phenomenon, even hazardous if alluding to the experience of some predecessors like Beethoven and Mahler. Along the same line, the main risk for such a symphonic process could have been to easily glide towards oratorio, which was not the case with Vieru who knew how to invest the choir with the organic structure of an established group, perfectly assimilated to the orchestra assembly.
    This approach is not singular in the creation of Anatol Vieru, on the contrary it belongs to a triad containing the 4th, the 5th and the 6th Symphony, the 6th Symphony "Exodus" having even an atypical Tangociaccona. If we also consider other similar works, we may sustain that variations on basso ostinato, particularly Ciaccona, embody a relevant section of the composing outlook of Anatol Vieru, justifying its aspiring to the condition of an authentic genre pattern.

  9. Călin Fărcăşel: Sonata pentru flaut solo în creaţia compozitorului Dan Voiculescu

    REZUMAT

    In the contemporary music, Dan Voiculescu had a distinctive voice in creation of vocal and instrumental songs, specificaly for flute solo in this case.Despite the tendency of other composers in the same era to create a music full of special sound effects, among other sophisticated rhythmical and melodical challenges, Dan Voiculescu remained a well dedicated figure to more traditional manner of making music. In the first three sonatas of the "9 Sonatas for flute solo" collection, we can see the line of flute clearly structured on themes, development section and the end.The flute sound effects (blowing and slapping techniques) are used to highlight both the emphasis and tehnical items of the songs, fact that comes to engage the player in a true experience of romanian native musical style.

  10. Loredana Elena Marus: Univers imagistic şi expresie muzicală în Carte fără Sfârşit… pentru pian solo de Dan Voiculescu

    REZUMAT

    The composer Dan Voiculescu offered numerous works to the youngest category of spectators and musicians.
    The three volumes entitled Carte fără sfârşit… have a complementary interdisciplinary function, in order to provide beautiful esthetic and musical experiences for children, that will later serve for the making and the development of their sensibility, and finally, of their fantasy.
    The above mentioned cycle is made from 105 miniature pieces, conceived in terms of evolution that fuse elements of piano technique with modern composing techniques, specific to the 20th century.The essence of the composing procedure of Dan Voiculescu resides in the double enunciation, in an organic whole, of the issues concerning the piano technique and the composition.
    Covering chronologically and systematically a problematic matter, from plain to intricate, the composer imagines an extremely rich structural semantic universe, where we discover few important guiding lines.
    All the works of this cycle have suggestive titles, that influence the interpretation and the reception of the musical text towards a precise esthetic goal.

II) Ştiinţa muzicii. Istoriografie muzicală. Teorie şi analiză

  1. Gabriela Ocneanu: Pripealele lui Filotei monahul şi răspândirea lor în lumea ortodoxă

    REZUMAT

    After years of extensive research undertaken by Rumanian and foreign scholars – theologians, linguists, musicians – it is now held as a historical fact that Monk Filothej of Cozia Monastery is the author of the earliest-known literary and musical work in the Rumanian lands, dated and documented as such in an impressive series of MSS and documents of the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries scattered today around the world. Before being tonsured into monkhood at Cozia Monastery Filothej had been a logothete to Mircea cel Bătrân (Mircea the Old), king of Wallachia from 1386 – 1418. MS rubrics as a rule reproduce this particular fact of Filothej's life which also serves to unmistakably identify him.
    Although Filothej's original MSS remain unknown, his contribution has been transmitted down to our present time in many MSS written in Old Church Slavonic. Tit Simedrea, the first and most meticulous and knowledgeable researcher of Filothej, mentioned in his ground-breking paper in addition to the 13 MSS, all written in OCS, held by the Library of the Rumanian Academy at Bucharest (B.A.R.), and dated to the 15th through 17th centuries, 12 other MSS held in foreign libraries, of which 5 explicitly mention Filothej's name. Of the 7 remaining ones, MS 407 of the Library of the Serghejevska Lavra of Holy Trinity near Moscow, a voluminous, krjuki-notated sticherarion ("Стихирарь крюковый") dated 1437, is especially important as a source of reference for further musical research. Tit Simedrea's Filothej-related MS inventory was considerably expanded by Radu Constantinescu to comprise a total of over 80 MSS featuring Filothej's pripjala, and his research was continued a little later by Gheorghe Ionescu. None of these researchers appears to have known of the existence of such other important MSS, as is the Supraśl musical anthology.
    The introduction of the printing press subsequently contributed to an explosive spread of Filothej's pripjala throughout the non-Greek Orthodox world, which in itself is an astonishing cultural development testifying to the popularity of this type of hant.
    If we now compare the pripjala musical settings in the Great Skete MSS with the settings of the pripjala transmitted in 19th-century works (printed books for the most part and using the Chrysanthine neumatic notation) of the Rumanian psalts Macarie Ieromonahul, Ghelasie Basarabeanul, Nectarie Frimu, Dimitrie Suceveanu we find similarities which apparently transcend the passage of two centuries or more.
    Irrefutable proofs are now available that the Filothejan pripjala chants were transmitted beyond the borders of the Rumanian lands and were used for a fairly long time in all Christian Orthodox countries where the Church rite was practised in OCS. We can now assume to have identified fairly reliably the kernel of a musical heritage that is now just about six centuries old. This kind of research work yielded a by-product at least as important as reaching that goal itself: a methodological gauge to check on the validity of interpreting aspects of certain notation systems, and of transcribing accurately from one system into another.

  2. Irina Zamfira Dănilă: Concepţia lui Teodor Teodorescu despre prelucrarea corală a muzicii psaltice

    REZUMAT

    In his work Lithurgic Hymns for a Choir in Four Mixed Voices the composer, conductor and professor Teodor Teodorescu (1876-1820) of Iaşi retains the traditional psaltic chants of the Romanian Orthodox Church in unadulterated form and chooses from the Romanian psaltic stock highly inspired and expressive melodies where the text of the prayer is shown off against the convincing musical illustration, which relies on observing the principles of musical rhetoric.
    The chants are adapted resorting to mainly poliphonic compositional means within the framework of the Renaissance choral motet. The immitative counterpoint techniques are used especially for the presentation of the themes of the four parts, with strict immitation at an interval of an octave or a fifth in the initial part of the motet and free immitation in the medial phrases. At certain points, the composer also uses immitation in the melodic section by grouping the voices by twos, starting with the highest.
    The harmonic adaptation of the voices– which are regarded as belonging to the major scale and the minor respectively – is applied according to the principles of classical harmony of the tonal type; thus, the parts are reduced to the tonal structure, "tonalized" to a certain extent, but this is compensated through the emphasis on the melodic contour by counterpoint means and through harmonic combinations of the main steps that are in authentic relations with the plagal steps of a modal sound. Beside the main functions, the secondary steps are used in various inversions. Certain melismas in the melodic contour are treated as either passage notes, sometimes even as retardations. Accord inversions of the main steps (tonic, subdominant, dominant) are used, with the aim of diminishing the feeling that the sound of the tonic is a centre of gravity. The aspects related to dynamics and to agogic accents are also integrated: the scores contain detailed nuances and indications for the tempo – elements that imbue the musical discourse with expressiveness and enthusiasm.
    As George Enescu also stated, the valuable melodic material, masterfully adapted through carefully selected harmonic and polyphonic means, make the work Lithurgic Hymns for a Choir in Four Voices by Teodor Teodorescu an original creation, illustrative of the trends initiated by Gavriil Musicescu and Dumitru Georgescu-Kiriac in the early 20th century; it fully deserves to be restored to circulation in the repertoire of contemporary lithurgic church choir.

  3. Carmen Chelaru: A fi sau a nu fi convenţional! Intersecţii ale cercetării muzicologice cu interpretarea artistică

    REZUMAT

    I initiated the present approach trying to prove that at the beginning of the 3rd millennium and 21st century, the live music – the artistic motion still has a lot of un-explored areas.
    We still live in the habits of the last era. I do not consider time as the single value arbiter anymore.
    On the 18th of October 2008, the French Cultural Centre of Iasi proposed and supported an un-conventional performance which took place at the Philharmonic. The form as well as the essence of this performance – quite original – is the main source of inspiration for the ideas I'm about to discuss.
    The show was entitled Baroque Wedding in Transylvania, and has been performed at an unchallenged high artistic level, by a group of French, Hungarian and Romanian musicians and musicologists. On that occasion, it was obvious that between the two apparently separate domains – the performing arts and the artistic research – could be a crossing area, with real valuable artistic productions.
    Jean-Christophe Frisch and the ensemble named XVIII-21 le Baroque Nomade have as purpose to present the Baroque music, in the 21st century cultural context. The subject researched and highly performed on the last October in Iasi , was inspired by Codex Caioni – the important collection of songs and dances in Transylvania , from the Baroque time, created by the Franciscan monk Ioan Caianu (1629-1687) – Romanian born. The show was described by the following: simplicity of production, symbolic and symmetric scenery, and suggestive costumes; at the same time – vocal, instrumental and choreographic virtuosity, several levels of accessibility, diversity as well as uniformity.
    We plead here for creativity, innovation, and un-conformism. For such artistic results, it is necessary to have, first of all, an initiator – researcher and performer at the same time, after that, related artists, and adequate support. The problems that may occur are caused by: routine, conventionalism, bureaucracy, prejudice, inertia, fixity. Other un-conventional shows and ideas in the actual musical life can be observed at:
    The vocal octet Swingle Singers, the King's Singers British sextet, Michael R. Lawrence – the American producer, screen writer and movie director, with his Bach Project, centered on the perspectives of contemporary musicians, scientists, and writers on the music of Bach and its place in their musical lives. Un-conventional is not the same with kitsch, vulgar or bad taste. Also, conventional does not suppose to mean old-fashioned, formal, shabby. The difference between the two of them does not provide value issues; both of these attitudes may generate real artistic values. The difference between them consists only in the ability and the will of renewing.
    On our more and more difficult daily existence, the un-conventional attitude could offer unexpected chances. In a University as that of Iasi, where so many artistic resources live together – music, theatre, visual arts –, the most unexpected things could be done with the lowest expenses, but with the highest creativity, if there's professional involvement.

  4. Loredana Iaţeşen: Particularităţi ale sincretismului în drama cu muzică Die glückliche Hand de Arnold Schönberg

    REZUMAT

    Approaching the scenic work Die glückliche Hand op.18 (1910-1913), also named by Arnold Schönberg dramma mit musik, we are surprised by the terse score, at a temporal level, but strained at the level of indications regarding the elements of the syncretism complexity: coloured lights at different intensities, projected on the stage directly or intuitively related to the tensed sonority, with pantomime moments and symbolic subject.
    Referring to Schonberg's design of the show, the analytic inquiry includes possible correlations between the elements of the scenic flow – gestures, decorum, image, words – sonority, symmetric and asymmetric relations at macro (four scene division) and micro (rhythmic and melodic configurations, intervals, sounds) levels of the structure. The above mentioned aspects reveal a dramaturgy based upon the relation between one and multiple, carried out as follows: the Men (scanty, separated interventions of the vocal line), the Woman, the individual, the gold seekers (pantomime, gestures, colour, metamorphosis); the disparate use of some microstructures is sometimes justified by recurrences, transformations in order to fulfil the symbols, the subtle expression of the timbre is subtracted from the post-romantic like orchestra ensemble; sound (the Men) – syncretism complex (the universe of knowledge).
    We bear in mind that the audition and the understanding of this work implies the surpassing of a psychological level, that of discrepancies created on purpose – the rough sound – autonomously, that sometimes contrast with the expression of the text, burdened by symbols, and with the delicate tones applied in subtle degrading hues – because the musician painter stimulates a sense synaesthesia, favouring in Die glückliche Hand the global perceiving of arts.

  5. Cristina Andra Răducanu: De la structură la interpretare în Studiile simfonice op. 13 de Robert Schumann

    REZUMAT

    This paper analyses the Symphonic Etudes op.13 composed by Robert Schumann.We propose an interesting approach to the understanding of the expressive and technical meanings of this cycle, in order to demonstrate their applications in practice, from a subjective point of view.
    In this context we have shown that the idea of pianistic etude is corroborated with the one of the variation. Beginning with a short formal analysis of each study/variation, we have pointed out the technical, expressive and stylistic elements used by Schumann in each piece of this cycle. We have also recommended possible ways to implement these elements into the artistic performance. The work emphasizes Schumann's unique pianistic style in comparison with other romantic compositions of the same kind.

  6. Eugenia Maria Paşca:Repertoriul vocal–instrumental contemporan românesc pentru vârstele timpurii

    REZUMAT

    Pocket-size creations for early ages are carefully and inspired conceived, proving a solid surety componistic and children's psychological knowledge from musical-evolutional point of view representing, for the present stage, a bench-mark in the specific didactic. Contemporary musicians, such as Liviu Comes, Alexandru Paşcanu şi Dan Voiculescu, carefully studied children's folklore and transposed it into delightful songs, continuing the tradition imposed, during the time, by: Alexandru Podoleanu, Dumitru Georgescu Kiriac, Timotei Popovici, Grigore Teodosiu, Mihail Gr. Posluşnicu, Petre Ţipordei, Gheorghe Cucu, Ioan D. Chirescu, Nicolae Oancea. In the repertoire composed by them, we find the children's repertoire through verse and song, in a unique association under the musical game's shape. The resonant atmosphere distinguishes through a synthesis between modal and tonal, proving a balance among lyrism, optimism, discretion and dynamism in the same time.
    The instrumental-vocal repertoire for children is characterized through syncretism, a rhythmic, a melodic structure and instrumentation normally registered in the specific spirit of the children's music. The resonant effects in echo, the tempo modifications or the accompaniment have the role to increase their emotional and artistic value, proving their oneness in the national musical context.

  7. Rosina Caterina Filimon: Arhitectura şi muzica: Pavilionul Philips şi Poème électronique

    REZUMAT

    The Philips Pavilion and Poème électronique represents an important artistic phenomenon due to the synthesis it accomplishes between architecture, music and visual arts. It was the first multimedia outfit ever created and a project that came into being through the cooperative efforts of three representative personalities in the 20th century: the architect Le Corbusier (1887-1965), the composers Iannis Xenakis (1922-2001) and Edgard Varèse (1883-1965). The Philips Pavilion’s architectural conception belonged to Xenakis, who established the exterior shape of the pavilion by making use of mathematical calculus. Created by Varèse, Poème électronique is an integrally electronic composition of cultural matrix, framed by Xenakis’s work Concrète PH. Le Corbusier achieved the interior shape of the pavilion as well as the visual component which combined movie shot screens with various coloured lights.
    The combination between the architectural, sonorous and visual dimensions offered the pavilion an interdisciplinary identity, creating a memorable experience for the viewer.

III) Colaborări

  1. Tomoko Siromoto: Beginning of Western Music Education in Japan

    REZUMAT

    In 1549 the Portuguese missionary Xavier brought Catholic Christianity to Japan along with its music. By early 17th century, however, the Christian faith became completely forbidden, and Western music was to disappear from Japan during the 200 years of the Isolation Policy until the termination of the policy by the 1854 treaty. Japan established the Music Research Institute for Western Music in 1879, in order to train music teachers for primary schools and to compile a songbook. The Institute employed L. W. Mason (1818-96) from the USA, a specialist in general classroom music education. The syllabus for the first year was mainly devoted to the tuition of singing and the piano, using Beyer Op 101, and this became the first ever 'conservatoire' course in Western music in Japan.

  2. Małgorzata Waszak: Karol Szymanowski – Heading Warsaw’s Conservatoire of Music

    REZUMAT

    The text is devoted to a five-year period in the history of Warsaw's school of music. It discusses a moment significant for today's shape of Polish music education, when in new social and political conditions of the interwar period, outstanding Polish musicians attempted to create a new programme and structure of the artistic educational system. At the end of the 1920s and the beginning of 1930, Karol Szymanowski became involved in the process, first as director of Warsaw's conservatoire, next as first rector of the Higher Music School in Warsaw.

  3. Aurelia Simion: Anton Rubinstein – Concepte şi metode privind studiul pianului

    REZUMAT

    Even though the periods of time when Anton Rubinstein undertook a systematic teaching activity were relatively brief, the eminent Russian pianist succeeded in becoming a prominent figure of 19th century piano pedagogy by means of his own progressive instructive-didactic method having some very innovative aspects. Many of his pedagogic principles laid the foundations of the world-famous Russian piano school. Rubinstein was always concerned with the authenticity of the performance, therefore he got particularly involved in the debates on the performer's participation in what may be called the translation of the text annotated by the author. The principle of instrumental "vocalisation" was the main ingredient of Rubinstein's didactic system, and the beauty of the touch was another particular cultivated in the students while perfecting the technical aspect.
    Through his art and training of young pianists, Anton Rubinstein shared selflessly, with great generosity and understanding, his rich performing experience, by stimulating the individuality of each of his disciples and avoiding very tactfully to impose upon them his own viewpoint in the interpretation of the piano works, and by pursuing incessantly the fundamental principles of his methodical-didactic system.

  4. Alicja Gronau-Osińska: The Integration of Form in The Poem - Requiem for Symphony Orchestra

    REZUMAT

    At the beginning of her voluminous lecture the authoress reflects on words by Hans Georg Gadamer about indefinableness, symbolics and game. Gronau divides her lecture to two layers: linguistic layer, dealing with technology and language of the piece, its grammar of vertical and horizontal constructs, and poetic layer, which tells of what is over-technical and trans-musical within the piece.
    The authoress takes this description of formal construction of the piece from Susanne Langer. The meaning of formal construction of The Poem – Requiem is shown in its three interpretations:
    i) The first one describes a three-phase course of the piece: state–evolution–involution. It is based upon the processes caried out within the piece, regarding their possibly most general level. An outlined initial state goes further on to develop and evolve towards climactic section, then slows down to fold, getting subdued to the involution, which goes on until the ending.
    ii) The second interpretation explains the designative form of The Poem – Requiem as a spiral. After the initial phase – called originally entrance – the spiral describes a fundamental circle. Then it rises to the upper level and describes a secondary circle, briefer but steeper at the slope of the spiral. The next final circle is just symbolic: it is the briefest part, simplified and generalized in terms of meaning. The threefold spiral of the third level heaves even higher and then… it is abruptly cut, ended up like a half-breath interrupted vocal phrase. This rising into a higher dimention is achieved by the interruption within expectation – the same effect, which the beginning of the piece was obtained by. The spiral is open and that plays an important part in the designative form of The Poem – Requiem.
    iii) The third interpretation divides the piece to five phases: the beginning – reaching the essence – separation – deepened and expanded essence – closing. That is how processual character of music is shown. The work considered this way helps to describe music as a specific narration. Again, that attracts attention to those, who are told the piece (listeners) as well as to the composer's musical communiqué sent to the listeners' expected reception.

  5. Maria Toronciuc: Viorel Munteanu – Sonata pentru vioară şi pian. Analiză tehnico-interpretativă

    REZUMAT

    Disciple du maître Vasile Spatarelu, le compositeur Viorel Munteanu (n.1944) s'est imposé dans la vie artistique de Iasi et de la Roumanie, se traçant une personnalité distincte. Né est élevé dans l'ambiance de la monodie ancestrale de résonance populaire, mais aussi de celle byzantine des terres de Bucovina, aux bases desquelles il a découvert l'appel pour la musique, Viorel Munteanu est entré dans le monde diversifié de la création et aussi dans celui de la modelage d'autres talents ou du débat des problèmes de l'art sonore.
    La Sonate pour violon et piano de Viorel Munteanu a été composée entre les années 1973-1974, étant dédiée à son maître, le compositeur Vasile Spatarelu.L'architecture bien mise en évidence de la Sonate pour violon et piano a été pensée par l'auteur selon la matrice classique des trois parties contrastantes. Première partie – Largo assai – construite en forme de sonate, est précédée par une lente introduction. La partie II – Rubato - est construite en forme de lied tripartite. La partie II – Allegro – est construite en forme de rondo – sonate.
    Composée dans un langage modal – chromatique, dans lequel l'auteur a intégré des éléments spécifique pour le folklore roumain, le total chromatique étant organisé en différentes structures modales, facilement saisissables qui se développent par la technique classique de modification du motif et par la technique des complémentations mélodiques et rythmiques, la Sonate pour violon et piano de Viorel Munteanu représente une page de chambre de valeur dans laquelle le modal – chromatique avec des résonances folkloriques est intégré, avec de moyens d'expressions spécifiques pour le genre, en forme de sonate classique.

  6. Ionela Butu: Memoria muzicală – valenţe didactice şi interpretative

    REZUMAT

    The essay is meant to explore a frequent problem of the interpretative process – the memorizing of the musical text, as to optimize the instructive and interpretative performances. Such aspects were analyzed:
    1. identifying and explaining certain types of memory blockings, that might interfere in the rendering of the musical message;
    2. the enumeration of certain technical aspects, regarding the manner in which the professor and the student should approach the matter of memorizing and rendering of the musical text, as to achieve superior artistic performance;
    Suggested hypothesis : the memorizing should accept as a compulsory premise the existence of motor and artistic dexterity – if such motor dexterity does not exist, lack of fluency steps in, situation that is misinterpreted as memorizing incapacity; memorizing could be more solid if learning takes place in various contexts; the memorizing level will be higher as the process will rely mainly on thinking operations and on acquaintance with the basic memorizing principles ( of processing and assimilating the text); the perfecting of the mobility is possible without the existence of an instrument, only through mental rendering of the musical text.The hypotheses were certified through the appeal to the artistic experience of prestigious names in the field of musical interpretation, as by the information provided by the experimental psychology.

  7. Lucia Diaconu: Estetica şi poietica interpretării muzical

    REZUMAT

    L'œuvre d'art se situe entre la réalité (en tant qu'élément objectif) et la fiction (comme élément subjectif), et elle intègre, au niveau de la sémiologie musicale, trois étapes. Selon Jean Molino et Jean-Jacques Nattiez, ces étapes constituent les hypostases ontologiques, se référant à la création (poïésis), à la réception - incluant l'interprétation (esthésis), et au texte écrit (élément spécifique aux arts temporels), comme relais entre les premières deux. En tenant compte de la définition que René Passeron donne à la poïétique - « la science des relations entre l'homme et l'œuvre durant la création », et du fait que l'interprétation soit générateur d'un nouveau produit esthétique, nous pouvons parler également d'une esthétique et d'une poïétique de l'acte interprétatif.

REDACȚIA

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică

Conf. univ. Victoria Melnic, Doctor în Studiul Artelor, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. Vladimir Axionov, Doctor Habilitat în Studiul Artelor, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol

Redactor coordonator: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Coperta: Ing. Emilian Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.

Coperta Revistei Artes 8

Prezentul volum cuprinde comunicări prezentate de muzicologi din Iași, București și Chișinău la simpozionul cu tema Identitate și contextualitate stilistică în creația contemporană românească desfășurată la Iași, în cadrul Festivalului muzicii românești ediția a XII-a serie nouă 3-10 octombrie 2008, comunicări prezentate la simpozionul știința muzicii al Catedrei de Muzicologie a Facultății de Compoziție, Muzicologie, Pedagogie muzicală și Teatru din cadrul Universității de Arte „George Enescu precum și câteva studii primite din țări sau din străinătate a căror publicare am socotit-o oportună. Traducerea rezumatelor (în limba engleză, doar unul în germană) a fost realizată prin grija înșiși autorilor sau de către Prep. univ. Maria-Cristina Misievici de la Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”. Menționăm totodată că, pentru a conferi unitate volumului, am folosit în redactarea notelor de subsol sau bibliografice indicațiile oferite de lucrarea TEHNICA SCRIERII ACADEMICE semnată de Șerban C. Andronescu, apărută la Editura Fundației „România de Mâine”, București 1997.

CUPRINS

A. Comunicări la Simpozionul Național Identitate și contextualitate în muzica românească contemporană(4 octombrie 2008)

  1. Gheorghe Duțică:Cronica unei neaudiții anunțate: Muzică pentru 497 de scaune și 3 spectatori

    REZUMAT

    Although the title of my pamphlet is the promise of a pseudo-fiction in a comical register, the reality of the text will confront us with a bitter irony sprung from the sober register of an ineluctable truth: the audience of contemporary cultivated music is practically non-existent.
    For a long time, the key phrase in 20th century music was “advancing by denying”. The critical point was hit by the avant-garde of the past century which, by means of an extreme individualism, pulverised any unitary grammar, any collective order, and eventually set the ontology of the musical work itself to explode. As an irony of history, the post-avantgarde period – which received the controversial name of Postmodernism – extended and multiplied, from different starting points, the tentacular evolution of the contemporary compositional tendencies, generating a new axiological confusion, another type of artistic sectarianism.
    From this viewpoint, recovery becomes a polarising concept and, rallied with the indifference towards originality and uniqueness, ensures a chaotic opening to all styles, to all manners, to all languages. A closer look at the postmodernist conglomerate reveals the fact that this phenomenon is in fact a challenge at least as aggressive as the avant-gardist one. Thus, it is not merely accidental that the new explosion of musical ontology offers us “oeuvres” that lie under the sign of collective hysteria, generalised kitsch or simply shock therapy. The delirious concatenation of the human being dissolving into the ordinary, the absence of any metaphysical attitude, of the time for meditation and introspection, all these are facts which characterise a world devoid of any (revealed) absolute truth, a world which has lost its sense of transcendence, a hulking, stiff, amorphous world. Inevitably subjected to history by experiencing a linear, unidirectional time, we have lost the meaning of evolution through spiritual enrichment and we have gradually become the victims of a dramatic process of alienation. We must regain the time to search for the self, the time for contemplation, the time for that inner state which forgets about time and forgets about space only to turn them into their sonorous likeness. Only then will the music regain its integrating virtues, its power of communion in the community. There is an alternative, all we must do is merely adopt it: our awareness of the sacred in the world and a spiritual existence in the realm of the ordinary can ensure the purity of the compositional project / projection.

  2. Gabriela Ocneanu: Aspecte inedite ale expresionismului în creația românească de operă

    REZUMAT

    Set against the general social and cultural background of pre-WWI Europe, Rumanian expressionism duly echoes the “growth and decay” of this cultural movement, initially rooted in a great striving for a break with the past, a disregard of all previous links to traditions, an obsession with innovation, an adventure into an undefined future, about to culminate in the shocks and fears of the first great war. Rumanian assimilation of this movement, blunting the European expressionism’s cutting edges and offering a new perspective, filtered through the calmer, wider and more positive perceptions of Rumanian traditional culture, is exemplarily represented in such literary works of Lucian Blaga’s as Meşterul Manole and Zamolxe. In the time period between the two great wars Rumanian music creation keeps well abreast of Rumanian literature and other fields of cultural endeavour of the time, and puts forward such remarkable works as Alexandru Zirra’s Alexandru Lăpuşneanu (written 1930, revised 1944); Sabin Drăgoi’s Năpasta (written 1927, revised 1957), Paul Constantinescu’s O noapte furtunoasă (1934). The Rumanian contribution to remoulding European expressionism for better purposes and cultural use culminates in George Enescu’s Oedipus (written 1931), where powerful, sublime music masterfully highlights the human message of the work, that could be seen as a reformulation of expressionistic cultural philosophy: “Man is stronger than fate!”

  3. Dan Voiculescu: Clusterul în creația lui Sigismund Toduță

    REZUMAT

    The vertical control of the melodic figurativism has repeatedly lead S.Toduta towards using concentrated dissonance, which can be classified under the wider concept of tone cluster. The juxtaposition of tones, derived from Rameau, Debussy and Messiaen, forms the basis of clusters. It is possible to identify hints of modality in composite chords as early as Toduta's works from the 1950s. Elsewhere, the tone cluster appears polyphonised and becomes a background harmonic fabric. In other works, the tone cluster results in a strong harmonic emphasis. This paper discusses the diatonic and chromatic clusters, and the broken cluster (with gaps). It comments on various concrete examples together with their technical characteristics of register, amplitude, dynamics. etc. By his adoption of the latest techniques of modern music (Lutoslawski, Ligeti, Xenakis etc.), and yet keeping his personal vision of polyphonisation and modal colouring of the tone cluster, S. Toduta appears to us as a pioneer.

  4. Vladimir Axionov: Reflecții asupra muzicii simfonice a compozitorilor din Republica Moldova la confluența secolelor XX-XXI

    REZUMAT

    The symphony as a musical-philosophical genre could not be isolated from the social life and the whole cultural-artistic climate of the time. The present article comes to elucidate the specific features of the current situation in the given field.
    The present stage of evolution of artistic creation in the Republic of Moldova results from the radical transformation of the political, ideological and cultural situations that took shape between the 80s and 90s of the 20th century. The opening of the communication channels, the intensification of contacts between the musicians of the ex-Soviet area and their colleagues from abroad – all these began to develop at the stage of evolution of universal music called post-avangardism. At that stage, the former German, French and Polish avangardists stopped the experiments with sounds that were extremely „revolutionary” and the innovations got a more moderate character. In the composition creation from the Republic of Moldova, the innovations that were, more or less, moderate showed themselves avoiding the proper avangardism that was persecuted during the stagnation period. Different manifestations of thiking and sonorous writings are placed at the opposite side. At another extreme, we find „the sonorous graphics” that we can compare with the respective manner in the domain of fine arts. We refer to the deliberate avoidance of some masses, multitude of sound transmitters (texture), to the rigorous selection of that minimal spectrum of the means of expression that the author valorizes and considers to be sufficient for adequately emphasizing his artistic conceptions. Such a direction of artistic thinking determines the prevalency of chamber and concert music whose influence has largely penetrated the modern symphony. Another reason for the symphony to get a chamber character consists in the movement of resistance to the multiplication and academization of the tradition of the large monumental symphony. ...We come to the conclusion that during the last years the composers from Chişinău gave up the idea of both multiplying the traditional symphonic „models” and „revolutionary” innovations and are in the course of creative exploration without which the further evolution of musical art is practically impossible.

  5. Victoria Melnic: Omagiu mitropolitului Dosoftei adus de compozitorul Ghenadie Ciobanu: Cântări uitate sau închinare lui Dosoftei

    REZUMAT

    Ghendie Ciobanu is one of the most prolific Moldovan composers from the last 20 years. Through his interest in different cultures and periods of music art, his creation fits perfectly into postmodern context which combines the heritage of the past and present-day openness to new trends. This article analyses his "Cântări uitate sau închinare lui Dosoftei" work ("Forgotten chants or praise to Dosoftei"), for voice and instrumental ensemble. The creation is a monocycle, a series of 7 episodes which reflect the rich personality of Metropolitan Dosoftei – as theologian, poet, statesman, philosopher. In order to describe the environment Dosoftei lived in, the composer uses the modalism and the monody characteristic to Romanian folklore and Byzantine music. The voice and the clarinet are used as Dosoftei's ego and alter-ego because the clarinet "gives a voice" to everything that can't be expressed in words, including those ideas and feelings (theologian, poet, philosopher) that can't be expressed due to social circumstances of the XVII century. It is due to this reason that the clarinet part is much more personalized and suggestive than the voice track.

B. Comunicări la Simpozionul știința muzicii al Catedrei de Muzicologie a Facultății de Compoziție, Muzicologie, Pedagogie Muzicală și Teatru (6 iunie 2008)

  1. Irina Zamfira Dănilă: Gheorghe Burada (1831-1870) – precursor al muzicii culte ieșene

    REZUMAT

    The contribution of Gheorghe Burada (1831-1870), composer and conductor of Iaşi, to the musical life, musical education and to religious and lay musical composition is important as it represents one of the first steps in knowing, understanding and applying the composition principles of Western tonal music – not heard of before the beginning of the 19th century. Gheorghe Burada was the conductor of the first choir singing religious harmonic music and also the first to teach musical theory and solmization at the Academy of Music and Dramatic Art of Iaşi. He composed both lay and religious music, yet his scores were never published. In the works he authored – now preserved at the Special Collections Department with Mihai Eminescu Central University Library – the principles of tonal classical music can be recognized, in a simpler, more rudimentary, yet effective form, lacking, however, genuine artistic mastery. His main religious composition, Divina Liturghie a Sf. Ioan Gură de Aur, having as a subtitle ”music that was partly adapted from Russian and partly being an original composition by G. T. Burada, Iassie” he introduced harmonized melodies belonging to the Russian-Ukrainian lithurgic repertoire and original melodies created in the same style and adapted using mainly harmonic techniques, while he very rarely employed elements of immitative polyphonic techniques. The ratio text – music is not neglected, the composer adequately illustrates the meaning of the lithurgic text. Elements of musical agogic and dynamics are also present in his scores, which make the musical discourse more expressive, at the same time proving Gheorghe Burada’ good musical training as well as his experience as a conductor of church choirs. Although unpretentious, his entire career as a composer – although still in manuscript form – represents a valuable document testifying of the beginning of cultured music in Iaşi in the second half of the 19th century.

  2. George Dumitriu: Ziua Învierii – glas 5, în tratarea corală a lui Ioan D. Chirescu și Nicolae Lungu

    REZUMAT

    The liturgical Day of Resurrection song belongs to the Resurrection Canon, which precedes the orthodox liturgy on Easter Saturday. It was composed by the famous Walachian psalter Ioan Popescu-Pas_rea (1871-1943). The Day of Resurrection song is written into the Western musical notation by its composer himself, into the echos 5 sticheraric, a minor mode of Byzantine tradition, having its tonic on E and the closures on the V-th (suspensive) and Ist (perfect) degrees. The specific features of the song are: general ambitus within an octave (E1- E2); mobility of VIth scale degree – lowered with a half step (when the musical phrase it’s performed within the tonic pentachord (E1-B1) – and aroused (C#2/Zo natural) – when the phrase it is performed within the dominant tetrachord (B1-E2).
    The melody of the song contains 11 musical phrases (melodic rows), grouped in three periods of three phrases each of them, except the last two rows which form a coda. The forth and fifth phrases modulate at the chromatic echos 6, the first having a closure the IVth scale degree (A1/Di) and the last at the subtonic (D1/Ni). This beautiful song of Romanian Orthodox Church was harmonized for mixed choir by two great Romanian composers: Ioan D. Chirescu (1889-1980) & Nicolae Lungu (1900- 1994), both of them former students of I. P. Pas_rea at Theological Seminary School in Bucharest. The two composers used a homophonic writing with a few counterpoint elements by the last. The harmony is tonal one, proved by the authentic chord progressions (I-IV-I-V-I or I-V-I). Between the 8th -9th musical rows, the two composers introduce a strange musical episode; Chirescu creates a trichord motif and Lungu composes a melody into the psaltic spirit. Since The psaltic song ends with an imperfect closure at Iv scale degree, every composer from the two traits the final into his own way: N. Lungu keeps the end of the psaltic melody, performing a definitive modulation of the harmony path at subdominant, and I. D. Chirescu adds a coda containing 8 measures, on the traditional Eastern greeting – “Christ is risen!” “Truly he’s risen!” – on the majorized tonic chord (picardian cadence). Both choral treatments of the psaltic song remain two jewelers of the Romanian choral treasure which deserve to be performed by the Romanian choirs.

  3. Anca Leahu: Repere structurale în Simfonietta de Vasile Spătărelu

    REZUMAT

    Vasile Spatarelu's symphonic oeuvre includes four works which were written several years apart, namely Simfonietta (1965), Suita brevis (1968), Dumbrava minunata – 7 scene pentru orchestra (The Magic Grove – 7 Scenes for Orchestra, 1973) and Epitaf 1989 – Meditatii la Enescu III (Epitaph 1989 – Meditations on Enescu III, 2002). Each of these four orchestral approaches introduces a different constitution of the orchestra, a different character and a different language, adapted to the requirements of the musical text and to the conveyed message, and perhaps it even stands as evidence for a distinct creative period.
    The first work, Simfonietta, which consists of three parts, approaches a modal language and employs predominantly strophic formal structures, all the elements of the musical language serving well the completion of this musical piece. The composing parts employ a fast tempo overall and the technical means involved in the creation of the whole reveal a musical score which is modern but at the same time rooted in the basic coordinates offered by tradition. Simfonietta is a cyclic work, where motifs proliferate within and into a whole; no element is left at random and the macro level derives from the micro one. The complexity and the force of these pages are rendered by various devices used reatively, by techniques employed scholarly and last, but not least, by sonorous developments which hold musicality as a primordial principle manifested at every level of the sonorous embodiment.

  4. Loredana Iațeșen: O altă percepție asupra singurătății în monodrama Erwartung de Arnold Schönberg

    REZUMAT

    Part of the expressionist aesthetics, Erwartung by Maria Pappenheim, a drama with multiple literary meanings, is spread along four asymmetrical scenes, in the nocturnal background of a forest, where an enamored woman is looking for her missing lover. The quest is sonorously rendered by a monologue of the woman, scattered by terror, desires, hope, waiting. The climax of the libretto tension consists of the appearance of a corpse, a fatal moment, when the protagonist recognizes the lover killed by her rival.When musically conveying the expressionist psychological drama, Arnold Schönberg displays the entire stock of expressing means at his disposal; starting with the orchestra, in an ample structure, used for cameral purpose, discretely and refined, generating that melody similar to the timbres in Klangferbenmelodie,where every instrument must produce exactly the indicated intensity nuance, corresponding (subjectively) to each instrument and not (objectively) to the overall sonority, and reaching the melodic language, harmonic and polyphonic atonal, with numerous accords and dissonant enchainment, creating that hazy and indistinct atmosphere of instability, anguish and anxiety.
    In the analysis that follows, we focused upon particular moments of melodic, harmonic and rhythmic expressiveness, unrolled like a mosaic, according to the condition, attitude, contradictory feelings of the heroine, whose ordering is made possible by the attempt to musically adapt a psychic interaction of events that apparently undertake the delimitation between conscious and unconscious.

  5. Gabriela Pavâlcu-Vlahopol: Îmbinarea diferitelor principii de formă în Fuga secolului XX

    REZUMAT

    The ways of combining different co-existing architectonic patterns is not a novelty in the 20th century. However, considering the particularity of the form of fugue, as well as its historical itinerary, we discover, during the 20th century, its combinations with other manners of organizing the speech, within some complex, innovating forms.
    - Placing the fugato in the course of the evolution of the discourse determines the dramatic functionality of the segment: in the first section, the middle one or the final part.
    - The conjunction between the principle of the expositional marker and of the developing evolution (specific to the form fugue) and the principle of the juxtaposition (specific to strophic system) represented one of the most frequent conjunction procedures in the Baroque fugue. In the 20th century, the phenomenon is
    especially well delineated in the two-subject fugues, which display three distinct area:
    A – the exposition (and its eventual processing) of the first theme, B- exposing the second theme, Av – synthesis section, where the two thematic articulations are superposed. (the analysis of the fugue contained by Variations And Fugue On A Bach Theme by Max Reger)
    - The interaction between the fugue and the alternation principle was not an achievement of the 20th century, being anticipated by some works in the Baroque
    period, such as the three subject fugues. We are encountering neither contrasting couplets, as in the classic rondo, nor identical reiterations of the refrain, but only recurrences of an initial theme which, though integrally exposed, is superposed to other thematic entities. The procedure is practically substantiated in the three subject fugue, rarely encountered due to its presuming composing virtuosity.
    - Starting with Bach’s creation, we discover the association between the fugue form and the variation principle. In the 20th century music, the phenomenon undertakes radical changes, displaying two hypostasis: either one of the variations contained by a cycle is taking the shape of a fugue, or the variations are grouped, according to the constructive principles of the fugue, in three distinct areas: expositive, developing and final.
    - The junction between the two expositive patterns – fugue and sonata – gives birth to a new sonata form, in which the two themes are treated in the fugue manner, the other segments driving at the relatively egregious pattern of the two paradigms.

  6. Eugenia Maria Pașca: Aspecte contemporane ale folclorului copiilor din județul Vaslui

    REZUMAT

    The folklore represents a part of the national culture of a country, reflecting in the most direct way the spiritual profile and artistic talent of a nation. In this way, the children’s creation keeps an ancient way of communication and of artistic exteriorisation, with ancient roots in the collective life, witch precedes the born of the spoken languages and of the musical language. The children’s folkloric traditions can constitute – especially in the rural medium/the first step towards the music’s knowledge, after which can be explored the created resonant universe, after the children’s folklore model, by the composers. The creations, folkloric or cult, are vocal as well instrumental – vocal. The accompaniment is predominant rhythmic, corporal (through the claps of the hands, legs, or rhythmic walk to mark the time or the rhythm), or instrumental (with resonant objects or percussion instruments which sonorous enriches the atmosphere of the play). The analyses of the cult repertoire, designated to children, I have realised it with examples belonging to the composers that I previous mentioned. The analyses of the cult repertoire, designated to children, I have realised it with examples belonging to the composers that I previous mentioned. In the same time, we also propose possible ways of integration of the scores in the different interdisciplinary activities. In the beginning, under the game’s shape and then under the lesson’s shape, musical education brings only benefits, joys and enthusiasm in the children’s hearts, no matter the parallel or the meridian where they are. What is important is that the scientific beginning, coordinated of the musical shape, to start from what is familiar to them, such as their creations, folkloric creations, so that be able to grow in the sonorous universe specific to the area to which it belongs. But, all this effort will not have a completion unless will be ancorated in the immediate reality that imposes the interdisciplinary correlation with all the domains that are explored by the children in their cognitive way, towards the understanding of the universe in which we live.

C. Colaborări din țară și străinătate

  1. Gabriel Bulancea: Aspecte ale cromatismului în genul Lamentationis (Lamentatio sau despre pietatea redescoperirii Frumuseții)

    REZUMAT

    Surpassing the limit of the seven fifths (spheres), the chromatism will impose itself in the western music through the stressed moving tendency of the altered notes, to another musical state of being, capable to translate not only the abstract movements of the stars on the sky, a kind of untouchable divinity, but also the inner cosmos order of the man, an embodied beauty became more and more earthly, deeply imprinted in the patterns of the human sensibility. Composers such as Marenzio, Gesualdo, Dowland, Purcell, Vivaldi and Bach assume the act of an inner change to which the musical art participates by renouncing more and more to the aurora dyatonism of the early epochs, with the tendency towards the transcendent, in order to bear the humanising bent of the chromatism specific to the next centuries. The Lamentationis genre becomes the instructing route that projects the human soul from the obscure place of the animalism towards the invisible heights of the union with the divinity.

  2. Marcin Tadeusz Lukaszewski: Polish religious music after World War Two

    REZUMAT

    The sacrum has inspired many composers down the centuries. In Polish music after World War II, the interest in the spiritual sphere has made a strong impact. Religious music by Polish composers after 1945 comprises solo songs for voice and organ (or piano), choral works (a cappella or with organ), oratorios and cantatas with diverse instrumental line-ups, operas, as well as works for solo organ whose titles or musical material point to religious connotations. As regards texts, composers employed mainly Latin liturgical texts from the Roman Catholic Church (psalms, hymns, responsories, offertories, sequences, masses and parts or masses), as well as other texts in Polish, Latin and other languages. They also made use of fragments of official documents of the Catholic Church, individual words from the liturgy (e.g. Amen, Hosanna, Alleluia) or the words pronounced by Pope John Paul II. The situation of Polish music after 1945 stemmed largely from the country’s social and political conditions. In the wake of the decisions taken at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, Poland found itself in the Soviet sphere of influence. This resulted in Poland’s subjugation to its eastern neighbour in politics, economy and culture. The changes which gradually started to take shape in compositional craft in the 1960s and 1970s manifested themselves not only in taking up grand themes. Composers also rethought their own idioms and revised their aesthetic views. At the end of the 1950s and in the 1960s many Polish composers turned towards religious themes. All in all, over thirty composers wrote religious pieces between 1957 and 1970. The social and political events in Poland at the end of the 1970s and early 1980s, as well as after 1981, made a profound impact on Polish sacred music. The Polish Pope – John Paul II – became special source of inspiration for composers. The continuing growth of interest in sacred music in post-war Poland, which ran parallel to the political transformations, was prompted by several factors. First and foremost, it was the composers’ desire to give vent to their religious sentiments. But many composers took the opportunity to manifest their views on political and social issues, as evidenced by the dedications in many scores. The overall shape of Polish religious music is highly diverse in terms of performance forces, the texts and the function of individual pieces. The use of religious texts became particularly popular during the 1990s.

  3. Cristina Maria Bostan: Spiritul concertant în muzica european din prima jumtate a secolului XX

    REZUMAT

    A preference of the 20th century composers is to be noticed not only in the combination of the symphonic with the concertizing elements (Prokofiev, Honegger, Enescu) but also in the impregnation of the compact orchestra assembly (symphony or chamber) with specific concertizing elements – thus developing the genre of ‘concerto for the orchestra’. The rapport between the soloist and the orchestra changes in direct connection to the configuration of the form in which the concertizing compositions are made up: if the latter basically consist of structures of the classical forms, then the soloist instrument is attributed the leading role, without the orchestra’s representing only the support of the accompaniment and the harmonious and modulant milieu, but actually representing also a means of thematic support and transformation. The soloist instrument is also integrated in the symphony (starting from the transformation of the musical soloist discourse into a symphony within the instrumental concerto), in Prokofiev’s creation (Concerto symphony for cello and orchestra opus 125, 1953) and Enescu (Concertizing symphony for cello and orchestra, 1901).

  4. Adriana-Olimpia Condriuc: Igor Stravinski – muzicianul savant

    REZUMAT

    Igor Strawinsky, „ein Genie wie niemals wieder geboren wird, mir seine ungeheure Intuition“ (S.Celibidache), der sich als „Handwerker-Künstler“ sah, repräsentierte, sowieArnold Schönberg, das Modell des gelehrten Künstlers. Er hat verstanden dass in derÜbergangszeit zu der XX-er Jahrhundert die Neueinschätzung aller Kompositionstechniken inder musikalische Kunst unerlässlich wurde. Nach 1919, startete der Komponist eineForschungsaktion in der die rhythmische Dynamik, die Nonemotionalität, die Deformationmelodischer und harmonischer Strukturen werden dem traditionellen Modell überlagert.
    Zusammen mit Pierre Souvchinski, Jean Maritain, Roland Manuel und Jean Cocteau,versucht Strawinsky eine tiefere Deutung über die Beziehung der Musik mit der Zeit alsEnergie, nach der Behauptung dass „die Musik bedeutet für die Zeit dass was die Geometrie für den Raum darstellt“, (Francis Warrain). Der Vorzug des Komponisten für die „neoklassische“ apollinische Eleganz zeigt imHintergrund seine Orientierung zur Ordnung, für Geometrie und Struktur: „Mein Ziel ist die Form“ war sein Motto. Der Beginn seiner Suche nach einer perfekten Form sollte einbeherzter „retour à Bach“ sein.
    Drei Jahrzehnte lang (1920 - 1948) forschte Strawinsky die Klangarchitektur der klassischen und baroquen zyklischen Formen, verwendet Strukturen von einer makelloser Klarheit, Einheit und Gleichgewicht; experimentiert den Dialog des Hauptsolisten mit verschiedenen Sekundär-Solisten, die ständige Konfiguration des zahlreichen Kammergruppierungen, die Mannigfaltigkeit des eingeschriebenen Inhaltes. Von 1924 bis 1925 erreichte Strawinsky in seinem Klavierspiel einen mit Objektivität eingeprägter Stil. In den 30-er Jahre beobachtet er die Erneuerung des konzertanten Violinstils...

  5. Dorina Iușcă: Inteligența muzicală – componentă a teoriei inteligențelor multiple

    REZUMAT

    Early research on human intelligence presented it as a one-dimensional construct, mostly consisting in abstract thinking. Further studies demonstrated the importance of logicalmathematical and verbal abilities. In the attempt of measuring the components of intelligence, psycho-metric theorists revealed a common „factor g”, responsible for the level of Intelligence Quotient, and that is very important for most of the mental tasks. All the theories of intelligence led to defining it as an essential form of adaptation and this perspective has been unanimously accepted. In 1983, Howard Gardner, professor and researcher in the fields of psychology and neurology, discovered that the complexity of intelligence is revealed in eight different ways of thinking. His theory is described in his popular work „Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”. The implications of Gardner’ theory in educational contexts demonstrate the limits of considering intelligence only from the logical or verbal point of view. All eight intelligences are discussed, emphasizing on the musical intelligence, seen as a better way of improving communicative skills, emotional equilibrium and social interaction abilities. Music is also presented as a modality of developing the hidden language through each complex ideas and feeling are expressed.

  6. Jaroslaw Chacinski: Intercultural Perspectives on Music Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    REZUMAT

    In recent decades various concepts of multicultural education have gained popularity, ones that emerged owing to millions of people migrating and settling down in their new areas of residence. The original intentions of shaping the educational policy for immigrants, based as they were on the ‘necessity for assimilation’ of this social group, stressing language, culture and socialising deficits in the process, proved insufficient, as they were not capable of facing the problems that emerged in the meantime: ethnic conflicts, marginalisation or ghettoisation of immigrants and the inability to integrate fully owing to the ‘asymmetric’ social standing of the dominant majority and the minority. There has been a dynamic development of various intercultural education orientations, which currently function as ‘classical concepts’, exemplifying developed theoretical and practical projects. What is known as the ‘principle of equality of cultures’, the necessity of equal treating of all social groups (i.e. antidiscrimination), counteracting racism, upbringing in peace with an emphasis on dialogue as the process of negotiation and dialogue building with unavoidable acceptance of differences were considered the starting point in the creation of these trends. Art has always played a significant role in intercultural education, being a symbolic medium of communication between the (indigenous) majority and the (immigrant) minority.
    Hence, this paper discusses several leading European concepts of such intercultural education that have made their way to the school subject labelled as Music and to the broadly defined extracurricular artistic activity of youth. One should highlight the ethno-musicologist trend of concepts of teaching ‘ the world’s music cultures’, music as a medium through which one approaches a foreign culture via the native, European cognitive potential, music education as a means of implementing the foundations of intercultural education and interculturally oriented music education. These concepts are still being developed and updated according to music education’s changing social and cultural contexts.

  7. Katarzyna Szymanska-Stulka: Dimensions of Time and Space in Music

    REZUMAT

    Time and space are two basic musical dimensions and spheres in which music comes into being, I mean is composed, performed and created in different ways. It seems that we quite understand it, but we rarely use it in musical analyses. Meanwhile time and space, seen both as the present real background for musical performance and historical multiplane territory of its existence, are the top elements of musical work joining together the rest of them, such as melody, harmony, rhythm, instrumentation, sound, dynamics, etc. For this new perspective of musical analysis I choose a few dimensions of time by the National Polish Cyclopaedia PWN, 2002 (ex. Augustan, Bergson’s, Husserl’s, Newton’s, Kant’s, Heidegger’s, Einstein’s concept of time) and architectural concept of space. I established some rules after the consideration of time and space and presented them with reference to a musical composition De profundis by Marian Borkowski – one of the most famous Polish modern composers and professors of Fryderyk Chopin University of Music in Warsaw. The main result of this analysis is that we have in this composition the maximal space, completely saturated with sound, organized by the surface of the orchestra and choir. The maximal space is combined with the aión category of time which means duration. This kind of structure is treated by the composer as a basis and the starting point for the next parts of a composition. We experience in this work an interesting lack of narration despite the real sequence of events. From time to time the change of space and time structure happens but there are no dramatic changes in the time and space organization. We have here duration but it is composed from different kinds of sounds, colours, voices, dynamics, and significances.

REDACȚIA

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică

Conf. univ. Victoria Melnic, Doctor în Studiul Artelor, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Prof. univ. Vladimir Axionov, Doctor Habilitat în Studiul Artelor, Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte plastice, Chişinău (Republica Moldova)

Lect. univ. dr. Gabriela Vlahopol

Redactor coordonator: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Coperta: Ing. Emilian Popa

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.

Coperta Revistei Artes 7

Prezentul volum cuprinde comunicări prezentate de muzicologi din Iaşi, Bucureşti, Cluj şi Chişinău la simpozionul cu tema Identitate şi contextualitate stilistică în creaţia contemporană românească desfăşurat la Iaşi în octombrie 2007 în cadrul Festivalului muzicii româneşti ediţia XI-a serie nouă precum şi câteva studii care se încadrează în aceeaşi tematică.

Traducerea rezumatelor (în limba engleză, doar unul în franceză) a fost realizată prin grija înşişi autorilor sau de către Prep. univ. Maria-Cristina Misievici de la Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu”.

CUPRINS

  1. Gheorghe Duţică: „Criza” reîntemeierii. Strategii anarhetipale în componistica românească

    REZUMAT

    Thomas Kuhn's theory on the structure of scientific revolutions brings out the argument according to which the development of any field is not cumulative in its totality, but it is bound to certain ruptures, to some radical, disturbing phenomena which determine the replacement of an obsolete paradigm by an innovatory one, the two sets of paradigms being in a relation of incommensurability. The transition moment as a pre-paradigmatic stage is defined by Kuhn as a critical moment where anomalies appear – those elements which oppose any natural step towards activity, as well as phenomena beyond the realm of the ordinary meant to achieve the decisive leap in the direction of a new theory and a new practice. From this standpoint, the refoundation "crisis" is, in our opinion, a crisis of transitivity seen as an interface phenomenon which sets up the mutations or changes of paradigm of the 21st century. Such an orientation is supported by a remarkable scientific basis which, in its turn, is enhanced by some new theories in mathematics and physics, i.e. Catastrophe theory (René Thom), Fractal theory (Benoit Mandelbrot), Dissipative structures theory (Ilya Prigogine), Theory of chaos and strange attractors (David Ruelle). Basically, all these morphological theories – which elude or even invalidate generative grammars from a probabilistic point of view – provide the complexity of a certain system with the chance of achieving that level of disequilibrium specific to the nonarchetypal compositional strategies (a concept we have built around the theory of the Romanian philosopher Corin Braga). Therefore, the "morpho-genetic rupture" will come out as a result of the juxtaposition or simultaneousness of incommensurable paradigms – leading to a polidimensional or multilayered complexity, embodied in the plurality of the structural and semantical areas or levels. Frequently, the outcome of such a compositional action will be the palimpsest, a superstructure which agglutinates a wide array of paradigms (grammatical, syntactic, stylistic), engaging spiritual areas which vary diachronically and diatopically, or even different axiological levels of the languages employed. By adhering to a new "philosophy of the interval" – as a paradoxical vision of "lying amid paradigms" –, by relying on the cetrifugal action of certain elements which alter the norms of conventional ontology, the works of such composers as Aurel Stroe and Anatol Vieru reveal themselves to us, at the beginning of the 21st century, as creations which (re)generate sonoric, autonomous, trans-canonic, metastylistic order.

  2. Ştefan Angi: Conotaţii româneşti şi europene ale ethosului moldovenesc în artă. Paradigma Glossă

    REZUMAT

    The connotations embraced in this study are examined through concepts like ethos and affectus, more precisely, through collation of their ethic-aesthetic signification. The first, ethos represents the ethical norm and manner-system pictured artistically, the second, affectus, the specific materialization of ethos in artistic creations. After enumerating some moments from the history of connotations, the author presents some ethic-aesthetic aspects of Romanian music culture especially parented in Moldavia: the 'doina'-singing phenomenon, the melancholy, the mythic and ballad-wise; the evocative character of the emphasized message. To deepen artistic apprehension of these characteristics the study offers for meditation the Glossă poem written by Eminescu and its evocative turnouts: the poem's translations in English, French, Spanish and Italian (recited by famous performers of the Eminescu poetry during the presentation of this paper), paintings inspired by the poem, and first and foremost, the 1st Symphony "Glossă" written by composer Viorel Munteanu. Near the rhetoric of text-melody relationship is examined the 'melograma' of the symphony, typical bearer of 'doina'-song's ethos from Bistriţa Năsăud and Bucovina zone.

  3. Lăcrămioara Naie: Viorel Munteanu. Melograma – o nouă viziune asupra conceptului de lied

    REZUMAT

    The composer Viorel Munteanu assimilated the universal classical conquests in his own style and highly placed new expressive – artistic achievement ways on a superior scale. He is revealing to us within the composition school of Iasi as being a personality of a great talent and a creative force.
    His elevated spirit, his distinct "Voice" touched by the genius of the great Romanian composer George Enescu all over the compartments of the musical language (melody, harmony, chromatic modals, writing and ethos) has come to an esoteric "Style and Manner". Within the chamber music, his miniature vocal–instrumental pages open the perspective of an extremely complicated and pretentious poetic–musical model that is non conformist and pertinent to the total of the followed objectives. Based on a complex modal organization, the lied called Song (Self-Portrait) has its originality in the melodrama "Blaga" (sib, la, sol, la).
    Due to the perfect relationship sound – letter, word – motive, musical text – literal text, this melodrama shall become an international entity, with a special emotional value, within the creation process and the interpretation itself. Following the route of George Enescu (e.g. The 3rd Sonata for the piano and violin), by means of technique and composition 'game', he develops various melodrama hypostases both within the melody (by using foreign alteration from the original model, the reversed chromatic formula, by the segmental using of the melodrama motive "BLAGA" in a combination of 2do +, in a harmonic interpretation, vertically etc.), and within the rhythm (with elements of short superior ornamentation – appoggiatura, in the formula of harmonic conglomerates, in the formula of a triola with ornamentation elements, sextolet with partially cumulated values, etc.)
    Although the work Song (Self-Portrait) is cameral, by the original solutions it suggests, from a pianist point of view, it proves to be written in an authentic 'orchestral spirit' (graphics on three levels, using the extreme registers of the instrument, harmonic pedals in the low register, rhythm and ornamental complex sound graphics, etc.). The art of such a representation represents a mixture of sensitivity and lucidity, freedom and discipline, spontaneous intuition and superior technique.

  4. Carmen Chelaru: Ipostaze ale spaţiului sonor în creaţia românească postbelică – „Scene nocturne” de Anatol Vieru, „Arcade” de Aurel Stroe, „Columna infinită” de Tiberiu Olah

    REZUMAT

    The contemporary Romanian composers do not represent an exception on the international scene of the music symphony. And yet, they do have a few distinctive features: new approaches guided by common sense; a discrete national nuance; keeping excesses under control.
    Among the Romanian musical trends during the second half of the 20th century, we mention:
    The synthesis between the Romanian and European characteristics: folklore and religious sources are used by the Romanian composers in their musical options. After the 6th decade, they will tend to stylization, as well as to the use of archetypes. After George Enescu and Béla Bartók, it was normal to continue to make use of such musical principles and modalities to combine folk and sacred music with the composers' imagination and originality. Spatial-mathematical systems in the Romanian contemporary music. An important stage in this matter is represented by the modal-serial systems. The Romanian composers are adapting here, too, the European modern music languages to national usage. Among the "spatial" features there are: series in synthesis with the modes, using the four serial types – prime, retrograde, inversion, retrograde-inversion – also permutation, variation and harmony. An interesting example of synthesis between space and time, music and mathematics is represented by the a cappella choral cycle Nocturnal Scenes (text by Federico Garcia Lorca) composed by Anatol Vieru in 1964, and dedicated to the Madrigal Chamber Choir. The author combines here several modern techniques, like serial and other mathematic principles. He chooses a prime numbers series – 1 2 3… - applying its serial types, as well as "punctual music", heterophony, special sound effects, stereophony. The piece Archways for 11 instrumental groups was composed by Aurel Stroe in 1963. The composition is conceived in great detail, by the use of symmetric and asymmetric proportions, by transposing Fibonacci`s series into musical modal structures, suggestive of musical archways. The Infinite Column, under-titled Homage to Brâncuşi by Tiberiu Olah, was created in 1962 and published four years later. It is conceived for a large orchestra and it is about 8 min. long. The work includes a series of musical events, such as: continuous, discontinuous, and simultaneous events, agglomerations and unusual melodies, timbres, dynamics and rhythm. The Romanian artistic creativity had the chance to be situated at the confluence between East and West and called to fuse the contemplative spirit of the first with the dynamism of the second.

  5. Laura Manolache: Repere stilistice ale creaţiei lui Tiberiu Olah

    REZUMAT

    Tiberiu Olah (born 1927 – died 2002) is one of the most remarkable Romanian composers who exerts strenght and exhibits great talent trough a comple, skillful and cultivated art. Firmly believing in the magical power of music, he yields himself to it openly, humbly, passionately, completly. His work convey a captivating lyrical expression, a strong sense of rhythm, a certain restlessness which renders the discourse dynamic, as well as a remarkable timbral and formal intuition. Nevertheless, his originality and creativity blend with a minute elaboration of each work, doubled by an experimentation with both language and technique. This study attempts to highlight several aspets typical of Olah's works from the point of view of their genesis and impressive diversity.

  6. Vladimir Axionov: Manifestările neoclasiciste în creaţia componistică din Republica Moldova

    REZUMAT

    Being one of the most significant aesthetic-stylistic tendencies in the 20th century music Neoclassicism revealed itself more eloquently in the West-European countries during the interwar period "penetrating" into the ex-Soviet space (including the Republic of Moldova) after the raising of the "iron curtain" during the Hrusciov thaw and it can be found in the contemporary composition creation. The specific features of the neoclassicist method consists in the reaffirmation of some old values of paradigmic phenomena adverse to the permanent and multiaspect revaluation of artistic systems characteristic of the radicalist "revolutionary" mentality that are definitely noncanonic. In the national composition creation influenced by neoclassicism as well as in that of the main representatives of neoclassicism in universal music one can find the use of classical and preclassical artistic phenomena as patterns on the basis of which new musical structures are created. These patterns are various: the baroque instruments, Renaissance forms and genres (the madrigal) and preclassic and those polyphonic (the fugue, the inventzione, the canon, the polyphonic bipartite cycle) and the homophonous-harmonic (the preclassic suite, concerto grosso etc.). If in the interwar music by Stravinsky, Hindemith, Casella, Malipiero, Martinu Neoclassicism was developed as an essential direction of creation, in the postwar music by the composers from Chişinau, neoclassicist, neobaroque elements became a component part of a stylistic synthesis in whose framwork they occupy either a peripheric place (the works by S.Lobel, V.Zagorsky, Z.Tkaci, T.Chiriac, Gh.Mustea) or they become more eloquent (the works by Gh.Neaga, V.Bitkin, I.Macovei, V.Rotaru, P.Rivilis, D.Kitsenko). The study both of neoclassicism and its fusion with other stylistic tendencies in different national cultures and regional areas (including the Republic of Moldova) contributes not only to the increase of the scientific know-ledge in the mentioned field but also helps to make clear the specific features of the adjacent composition methods (eg. the reflection and the archetype technique, the poly- and metastylistic research) centered round the restoration and modernization of some old artistic models that are eternal.

  7. Victoria Melnic: Dualismul conceptual în Suita pentru oboi şi pian de Vasile Zagorschi

    REZUMAT

    Si nous faisons une analyse de l'œuvre de V.Zagorschi nous pouvons relever une prédisposition prégnante pour la généralisation philosophique, pour les thèmes profonds avec un caractère éternel. Cette prédisposition conduit à un langage symphonisé présent dans la majorité de ses œuvres, y compris la Suite pour hautbois et piano composée en 1977. Le cycle inclut sept parties, un chiffre avec multiples implications sémantiques qui symbolisent l'unité dialectique du matériel et du spirituel, donc le dualisme, mais en même temps la cohésion des contraires. La Suite relève plusieurs aspects du dualisme conceptuel qui se développent à différents niveaux. Dans une manière très prégnante le concept dualiste de la Suite est réalisé au niveau du timbre des deux instruments participant – le hautbois et le piano parce que « le timbre est même la conscience du son car avant d'être hauteur (ou intensité) le son est timbre » (P.Bentoiu Gandirea muzicala, Buc., 1975, p.35). Le dualisme des idées et des images musicales est accentué par la dynamique et par les registres dans lesquels sonnent les instruments. Dans plusieurs pièces on peut observer en même temps des remarques très différentes dans les parties des instruments participant. Il n'est moins évidente le contraste généré par les différents types d'organisation du discours musical utilise dans chaque partie de ces deuz instruments. Dans la majorité des pièces il semble que le hautbois et le piano évoluent dans les espaces parallèles que parfois s'intersectés pour générer des images musicales très prégnantes et expressives. Notamment dans le piano évoque la sphère du rationnel, objectif qui se manifeste en même temps au niveau de la forme musicale ainsi qu'au niveau de l'écriture. Dans la Suite de Zagorschi on peut observer la présence du dualisme entre le général et le particulier, entre l'universel et le national. En énonçant divers côtés du dualisme le compositeur les soumis á un développement intégrale, en construisant d'une manière méticuleuse et conséquent un édifice sonore complexe et impressionnant. La Suite est un ouvrage d'une intensité psychologique exceptionnelle. Elle se présente a nous comme une œuvre représentative pour la création musicale de V. Zagorschi avec des incursions dans la sphère subjective et personnelle, mais aussi dans la sphère lyrico-dramatique. Les sept tableaux musicaux nous relèvent non seulement les sentiments et les états du héro lyrique, mais aussi la vie intense de l'esprit avec la lutte permanente entre ses éléments contraires.

  8. Gabriela Ocneanu: Codex Caioni în creaţia lui Doru Popovici şi Dan Voiculescu – clipe de odihnă în decenii de zbucium

    REZUMAT

    These two works, based on the 17th century musical anthology by Rumanian priest and scholar Ion Căianu, were written at a 30 years interval one from the other: the first was written by Doru Popovici in 1967, and the second was written by Dan Voiculescu in 1997. The Codex Caioni comprises monodic chants and polyphonic vocal and instrumental pieces, both lay and religious that were widespread in Ion Căianu's time and in the preceding century, when Renaissance culture was flourishing, and features European composers, particularly Italian and German, as well as Rumanian ones. Doru Popovici and Dan Voiculescu make similar use of some of the melodies contained in the Codex Caioni by dedicating their respective works to the performance of string instruments, such as the latter must have been employed in Ion Căianu's time. Both works are built as dance pieces, featuring symmetry, a rigorous rhythmic and metric organization, and are clad in an ocasionally polyphonic harmony, that, while appearing as simple and modal, often resorts to variational forms, and in both cases evolve as suites, whereby Dan Voiculescu for one explicitly mentions this in his work's subtitle: "Suită din Codex Caioni". The two works masterfully revive the musical tones of a by-gone era, which had obviously lain at the heart of a medieval Transylvanian, and which, transmitted in the Codex Caioni, managed to rekindle similar feelings in two modern Rumanian composers, and prompt them to write two delightful compositions.

  9. Eugenia Paşca: Elemente arhaice în colindele din zona Berezeni – Vaslui

    REZUMAT

    In the Romanian calendaristic customs, that includes a variety of customs and manifestations with a wide development in the village's life, winter customs have a very special place. The ways of manifestations had been inherited from the Romanian folklore culture and have been sent from the ancient times till nowadays. The ways to celebrate are numerous, having a special profusion, involving the participation of the whole community, and the children as well. The concern of the adults has always been to determine the children to know, to initiate them, and so to practice these wonderful traditions. Very important is the fact that, even today, the traditions are alive all around the territory lived by Romanians. In the present habitat of the Vaslui County, which includes the old Falciu, Tutova and Vaslui regions, the practice of the carol singing takes place unequal from the circulation intensity and folklore authenticity point of view. Vaslui town is placed, practically, at the region's limit of wide and meaningful presence of the secular carols (Romanian Plain, Dobrogea, The South of Moldova, Buceagul with elongations over the Nistru). We will also distinguish, in the Vaslui County's area; under areas differentiate from the ways of cultivation of this folklore species point of view. The period of time comprised between 1950-1989, has powerfully touched this domain, in the way that interdiction to sing carols, interdiction that was mainly for children, through the school, has determine the appearance of a breakage, a separation between the secular carols adults singers and the very young generation.

REDACȚIA

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică

Asist. univ. dr. Gabriela Pavâlcu-Vlahopol

Redactor coordonator: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Coperta: Emanoil Constantin Puiu

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.

Coperta Revistei Artes 6

Textele cuprinse in acest volum au fost elaborate in perioada care s-a scurs de la aparatia revistei ARTES nr. 5 (2005). Ele apartin unor muzicieni din Iași și din alte centre universitare (București, Cluj, Galați). Este vorba fie de conferinte sustinute in cadrul Universitatii de Arte ”George Enescu”, fie de comunicari in cadrul unor simpozioane din aceeai institutie, fie de studii doctorale, fie de rezultatul unor investigatii izvorate din preocupari personale și care se dezvaluie pentru prima oara cu aceasta ocazie.

Provenienta diferita explica diversitatea tematica, modalitatea de prezentare precum și dimensiunea în fiecare caz. Includerea în volum a urmarit o eșalonare logica pe criterii de continut.

Traducerea rezumatelor in limba engleza a fost realizata prin grija inșiși autorilor sau de catre Prep. univ. Maria-Cristina Misievici de la Universitatea Națională de Arte ”George Enescu”.

CUPRINS

  1. Francisc Laszlo: Un clujean la Iasi - Doua conferinte
    - Dedicatie
    - Ars musicologica, 2005
    - Gyorgy Ligeti pe punte

    REZUMAT

    Ars musicologica, 2005
    The lecture given at the University of Arts "G. Enescu" Iasi is Laszlo's confession of faith on musicology in general and on Romanian musicology in particular. On the grounds of his personal experience gained during a 50 year-professional activity, he insists on the necessity of the musicologist's being emotionally attached to the music he examines (the 'affective' relationship being obvious in the case of those composers who are also musicologists), but also to his audience. Furthermore, he pleads for the practice of a 'complete musicology' – which should comprise the analysis and historical research as well as the genres of musical journalism –, and for the necessity of the musicologist's revealing his own ego in his writings. According to Laszlo, every master of musicology builds up a 'school' around him, and the young musicologists must go through several 'schools' in order to become masters themselves. A Romanian Society for Musicology might, on the one hand, contribute to pulling Romanian musicology out of its relative international isolation in a European environment, and, on the other hand, help to avoid the danger of 'Americanising' it.

    György Ligeti pe punte
    In the symbolism of Béla Bartók's Cantata Profana ('Secular Cantata'), the footbridge is the place of final separation: the young hunters – who are changed into stags once they have crossed the footbridge – can no longer return to their original home, nor drink from a cup or wear human clothing. In Ligeti's life, the 'footbridge' was in fact the Austro-Hungarian border, which he crossed in the autumn of turmoil in 1956; his work henceforth may be regarded as contrary to the stylistic landscape which he had left behind. The study examines analitically two of Ligeti's works written before his 'crossing': Musica ricercata for piano and Six Bagatelles for Wind Quintet, and draws a comparison between the two embodiments of a single musical substance. The two examples reveal the exquisite freedom with which the composer breaks even the 'rules' of the new order that he himself had created. It is in these early works that the mature Ligeti is comprised, in a nutshell, and this stands as a result of his having crossed the 'footbridge' before actually crossing it in October 1956.

  2. Clemansa Liliana Firca: ”Modelul francez” In componistica romaneasca din prima jumatate a secolului XX

    REZUMAT

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, a relatively long cultural tradition was already established, a tradition where Romanian intellectuals and artists had connections of a formative nature with France. The Romanian musicians joined this tradition toward the end of the nineteenth century. Beginning with this moment, and for about 50 years, a significant number of composers from at least three generations, from D. G. Kiriac (b. 1866) to Dinu Lipatti (b. 1917), will perfect their studies in Paris, in the major centers of academic education (Conservatoire national de musique, Schola Cantorum, Ecole Normale de Musique). Under the influence of either their mentors, or of the French musical environment which some of these composers continued to frequent even after the end of their studies, a "French model" will be detected in a form or another in their music.
    There are also examples of affiliation of a few Romanian composers to some aesthetical orientations manifested inside the so-called "French musical school": in the 1920s, Mihalovici composes scenic works (ballets, operas) in the ludic, parodying and demystifying spirit propagated by Satie and "Les Six"; in the next decade, Lipatti, who studied composition with Nadia Boulanger at Ecole Normale de Musique, will be profoundly influenced by the classicist orientation promoted by the famous professor in her classes (by taking the Stravinski route of a "return to Bach"), this fact being demonstrated by the few neoclassical reference works written by Lipatti in the 1930s.
    In the long run, the most fruitful of the influences exerted by the French music over the Romanian one is perhaps to be found in the (especially harmonic) modal language of the compositions, which merged together the characteristic features of two distinct modal morphologies, the French one and the Romanian one. Sustained to a large extent by a modal basis, the new things brought to the Romanian music in the first half of the twentieth century certainly owed something to some borrowings from the French music too.

  3. Gabriela Ocneanu: George Pascu - Profesorul și Omul

    REZUMAT

    Far from being an exhaustive presentation of the personality of professor George Pascu, this paper will be a short and warm evocation, coming as it does from someone who for over three decades had been more than just his assistant, moreover had been a modest but dedicated disciple, always at his side for eight consecutive years. His personality was built around his outspoken love for, and uninterrupted preoccupation with the musical act, which he pursued assiduously, both in his teaching, and in his daily life, the two sides of his use of time, that made always one whole. His interests absorbed with a high sense for values all the epochs and styles in the history of world and Rumanian music, which he then revealed to those around him, while convincingly imparting the idea that those who do not know the past cannot understand the present, and would not be in a position to contribute to making openings to the future. Outside the class George Pascu was a real mentor in uncovering to many the mysteries of music by meas of his innumerable public lectures and lesson-concerts, which he presented across the entire country, and especially in his native Moldavia. Endowed with an exceptional talent for communication, George Pascu was, besides a professor, a friend to young and old, and these people will never forget the man who opened for them the way to the great music of the world.

  4. Anca Leahu: Portret Vasile Spatarelu

    REZUMAT

    The article endeavours an outline portrayal of the complex personality of the Romanian musician, Vasile Spatarelu, emphasizing his professional preparation, his componistic, didactic and organizational activity all over the years, as well as various events of his life and outstanding figures that contributed to his formation. The composer, Vasile Spatarelu, gave proof of originality, fluency, of an winsome imagination, rigour in preparation, lyrism with straightforward message to the audience's soul in his approach of all musical genres (choral, chamber music, symphony, vocal symphony and dramatic and even light music), using to this effect means of expression specific both to the Romanian Classicism, one of which is folklore, and to the universal post-modernism, embodying thuswise his own unmistakable style. He defined his personality far back as from his first works, as his music represents himself between the contrasts which towered above him, pendulating and, at the same time balancing in a perfect manner all along his composition upgrowth between poetry, nostalgy, contemplation or hope, engendering images full of either joy and glow, or, in patches, lightsome irony, sometimes cheerfuler, sometimes more severe, even dramatical. All over his creations the composer, Vasile Spatarelu eulogized life in all its various hypostasis, always using a dose of melodic lyrism embedded as a delicate smoothing, as a distinctive and personal note.

  5. Lacramioara Naie: Vasile Spatarelu și lied-ul romanesc contemporan

    REZUMAT

    The composer Vasile Spătărelu, a remarkable personality of the composition art in Iasi, proves a language of an exceptional complexity, logically expressed and rich in virtuosities. The entire varieties of modulations that appear in well-considered doses represent a pleading for achieving the artistic thrill. The structuralism of his music breathes deeply under the modal layer, with harmonic conglomerates, varieties of chromatics, homophone writing with linear plans, the cultivation of intonations of 2nd + , 3rd – şi 4th +, 4th–, 5th – 5th +, 6th +, 7th–, symetric ways such as {1:2}. A special element in the miniature vocal – instrumental creation of the composer Vasile Spătărelu is represented by the symbiosis between music and poetry, in the classic acceptation of achievement (Sleepy Little Birds) and in its modern acceptation (Five Tanka Poems).
    His sonorous universe combined with German poetic flavours (A Girl Is Speaking – Goethe), Japanese ones (Five Tanka Poems), romantic/Eminescu ones (Sleepy Little Birds) is revealed to us in a variety of colours and artistic – expressive meanings. Everything in his miniature vocal – instrumental creation is harmony, measure, method, order and clarity, but also 'a divine voice'. The colourful potentials of the instrument are fully exploited without ostentation and observe a structuralist – constructive thinking. The instrumental intelligibility equally runs through the virtuosity parameters and the artistic expressivity ones in the moments of tempo alert or sitting.

  6. Irina Zamfira Danila: Solutii modale in Liturghia psaltica în glasul III de Florin Bucescu și Vasile Spatarelu

    REZUMAT

    The Psaltic Lithurgy in the third voice is a monodic religious work composed by Professor Florin Bucescu with the aim at broadening the range of the contemporary psaltic repertoire, as the work is meant mainly for pupils and students in Theology as well as for church singers. In oder to be performed in several parts, this work has benefited from the artistic contribution of regretted composer Vasile Spătărelu, who adapted it from the harmonic polifonic point of view for a choir of two or three equal parts (Florin Bucescu, Vasile Spătărelu – Jertfa Laudei – Liturghia psaltică în glasul al III-lea şi prelucrare corală la două şi trei voci egale, Iaşi, Ed. Trinitas, 2006). The present paper will focus on the main composition methods used by Spătărelu in the version written for choirs with three equal parts. The basic harmonic composition methods in The Psaltic Lithurgy are harmonic combinations, frequently used in inversions, less frequently in their direct form. Avoiding using the fundamental in the bass and by replacing it with the tierce, the fifth or the seventh reduces the effect of tonal gravitational centre and dims the sonorous effects, as required by the performing manner of saltic music. From among the most frequently used combinations of a modal nature, one can mention plagal series such as those in secondary relation or in descending fourth. Melodic notes, retardations, passing notes, grace notes, apoggiatura (leaning notes) are used to adorn the musical discourse. The cadence system in the choir adaptation of the Psaltic Lithurgy is mainly modal. Among the most frequent relations in the cadences are II6-I6 (Phrygian), IV6-I6 etc. In terms of polyphonic methods, Vasile Spătărelu uses imitation, mainly in the thematic incipit parts. It is not as strict as renaissance or baroque imitation, it can apply only to one of the features of the musical discourse such as intervals, the ascending or descending development of the theme or its rhythmical character. Canon imitation is less frequently and consistently used, being present mainly in the first part of the piece. To illustrate the traditional performing manner of psaltic music, as a monody accompanied by an ison usually represented by the fundamental of the mode, Vasile Spătărelu uses the harmonic pedal. Masterfully composed and in a perfect mastery of composition methods, Liturghia psaltică în glasul al III-lea by Florin Bucescu, choir version by Vasile Spătărelu can be described as an original creation written in total respect of the modal character of the psaltic melodic line, revealing artistic features and expressive qualities that recommend it for performance within the established liturgy repertoire.

  7. Gabriela Pavalcu: Cvartetul de coarde Op. 133, Marea Fuga, de L. van Beethoven. Implicatii ale formei asupra dramaturgiei

    REZUMAT

    Along with embracing the fugue form within the homophone music ensemble, fundamental changes at the level of the quartet drama happen, Beethoven being the creator of a new typology. Thus, the last three string quartets shall reflect, through their progressive augmentation in the architectonic structure, the tendency towards monumental proportions, towards a poetical and philosophical level where traditional limits are surpassed. The Quartet op. 133 The Great Fugue was initially conceived as the final part of The Quartet op.130 in B flat. The composer's intention was to create this final moment as a convergent point of all meanings encountered in work's portions. For this conclusion to embody the supreme climax of the entire op. 130, the composer chose a double fugue, with a polyphonic development that meets the monumental ideal, both as dimension and as dramatic tension. The two fugues in the frame construction are shaped according to the baroque fugue principle, containing S-R type exposures, divertimenti and topic display in different key schemes. The novelty consists of the way the fugue form and the variational principle conjoin, the middle reprises of the Bach model being expositional moments, in which S and CS are subject to rhythmic and melodic variations. Each section in itself, through its accomplishment procedures, specific to both homophonic and polyphonic thinking, are moments of a complex dramatic entirety, in which moments follow one after another in evolution, preparing the way for the climax, subsequently solved by a conclusive and synthetic final. The fugue form was not a goal in itself for Beethoven, its personality being contradictory to his construction harshness, but an agent which, by shaping the sonata form contours, on the background of a contrastive language, of tension and drama, gives birth to a unique, brilliant, audacious work, claiming an impressive dramatic force and proving monumental, a work that can always be regarded as contemporaneous.

  8. Gabriel Bulancea: Gilbert Durand reinterpretand estetica wagneriana

    REZUMAT

    The Wagner case includes numerous disputable facets, each of them discovering a new age of his personality, reffering to his creation and his life, too. There is a deep connection between Wagner's life and work, the two ways showing one another so that we can state the existence of a symbolic relation between them. Speaking about his life we reveal the fire of his creation the same way as the analysis of his work can shed a light upon some features of the wagnerian psychology. Going deeper into the issue we notice that the artistic way constitutes the revelation of his existential destiny which can be interpreted with the help of the smallest structural units of the myths depicted professionally by Gilbert Durand.

  9. Leonard Dumitriu: "Prologul in cer" din opera Mefislofele de Arrigo Boito

    REZUMAT

    The paper tries to prove the connection between Goethe's masterpiece and Boito's libretto, especially in matter of symbols. In the same time, it demonstrates that the Italian artist adds other symbolic meanings, taken from the Holly Bible. One could notice the significance of number seven, which the composer – librettist brings many times during the "Prologue in Heaven". It follows a musical analysis of the first fragment of Mefistofele. Despite the fact that this music is more an intellectual result than an inspired one, it represents a perfect accomplishment of Arrigo Boito, being one of the most impressive opera pages ever written.

  10. Rosina Caterina Filimon: Muzica subliminala

    REZUMAT

    The subliminal perception phenomenon has been the subject of many scientific studies in the last 50 years. The results indicate that the subliminal phenomenon has become an important tool in influencing and changing the human behavior. The subliminal messages are addressed to the unconscious mind by words, images and music.

  11. Dorina Iusca: Muzica - modalitate de cunoatere a omului

    REZUMAT

    Music has always had a significant importance in our life, confirming the intellectual, affective and social complexity of the human nature. Usually, music is used as a way of fulfilling one's cultural background, of discussing the aesthetic value or of improving someone's skills. Moreover, music can be used in the process of discovering the psychological characteristics of a person, leading the way to the complex world of the unconscious. This study approaches the field of music psychology by combining information related to the concepts of music audition and psychological projection. Marcel Proust used to say: "The world is the same but different for each of us", expressing the personal characteristic of perception. Furthermore, Freud introduced the concept of psychological phenomenon through which one person forces out ideas, affects, desires of which he is unaware of or whose existence he refuses, attributing them to other people, things or situations from his surrounding environment.This research will demonstrate that the content of projections obtained through the musical audition of two instrumental musical fragments (different from each other at the level of musical language) is influenced by age. In the early age, the projections have got an individual characteristic. Beginning with adolescence, the content of projections tends to be more and more influenced by music and its features. Case studies analyzed in this research uncover important information about children's personality. Knowing this information about their students, the teachers can help them solve learning difficulties. The findings of this research are important for parents, psychologists, musicians and teachers interested in discovering the hidden aspects of the human nature.

  12. Eugenia Pasca: Kitsch-ul ca fenomen artistic in perioada contemporana si rolul educatiei estetice in formarea personalitatii adolescentilor

    REZUMAT

    We believe that today nobody doubt the existence, even more, the omnipresence of kitsch in the fundamental hypostasis of the life, of the modern society. Our intention is exactly the one to demonstrate – if it's still the case – the availability of this finding by tracking and circumscribing of the phenomenon from different spheres of our material and spiritual existence. On the unanimus opinion of the researchers, the kitsch remains one of the most penetrant variant and the most expanded of the aesthetic polution. It is the expression and the satisfaction of the all the times perverted aesthetic taste, and on the other hand, a typical and specific (propriu) product, through dimensions, of the modern society. It can be prefigurated an entire set of efficient measures which could hold back or at least to stint the action area of the kitsch art contamination. A first attitude is the one of an appropriate aesthetic education in the school, for cultivating the ensitivity, taste, pasion for authentic beauty (drawing hours, practical skills, language an literature, music). Fixing these knowledges can be done by permanent/continuous organising of exhibitions in the school (book, disks, tapes, dressing and decorative objects, fine art creations); continuing these views in museums' exhibitions, art galleries, bookstores, theatre and musical shows, will consolidate the taste for value, as far back as pre-primary period and will keep it in the school time stages (primary, gymnasium, high school). However passing/evanescent and sporadic would be the kitsch manifestations in our life, they have to be eliminated unhesitatingly, before they become noxious/detrimental, since it develops primeval, vulgar, violent feelings and attitudes. Promoting the authentical aesthetic values by all means will lead, step by step, at nonvalue elimination from our existence.

  13. Iolanda Misievici: Incercari de hermeneutica religioasa si estetica

    REZUMAT

    Our study tries to identify a few common elements of the hermeneutic discourse, which can be operational both in theology and in aesthetics, two fields with no apparent connection with one another, if not even antinomic as concerns immediate significations. The pretext was an excellent essay of the well-known hermeneutics specialist Paul Ricoeur, "Experience and Language in the Religious Discourse ", published in the collective volume "Fenomenologie si teologie", Polirom Publishing House (1996). Starting from the religious experience that can be included in a discourse on phenomenology, we first analyzed a few of the avatars of a comprehensive interpretation, drawing the conclusion that a coherent interpretation of the Bible is possible and desirable only if the biblical language is considered at its metaphoric / literary level. Otherwise, the polyphonic text of the Bible could be included in a modern Poetics that would perfectly match a centripetal structure, synthetically enclosing elements of a discourse that could be narrative, prophetic, intelligent, hymnic, parabolic, etc. Written in 1992, on the occasion of an international colloquium organised by the Faculty of Philosophy of the Catholic Institute of Paris, Paul Ricoeur's essay is especially important today, when we are likely to meet a "self" incapable of unconditioned love and giving, a "self" politically anchored on the domination - subordination vertical and not on the benevolence – happiness horizontal, responsible for the need to live together with fellow men, animated by the wish for common wealth. We have tried to identify situations similar to the religious symbolic field in the artistic perimeter as well, using the same argumentative criteria. The conclusion we have drawn is that we need a hermeneutics of the postmodern artistic act and that beyond experiment and hazard, the present-day artist could have targets and stakes as great as their fellow men's everywhere and anytime, and their works could be read and decoded according to the hermeneutic levels proposed by specialists.

REDACȚIA

Colegiul redacţional:

Prof. univ. dr. Laura Vasiliu

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe Duţică

Asist. univ. dr. Gabriela Pavâlcu-Vlahopol

Redactor coordonator: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Coperta: Emanoil Constantin Puiu

© Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Drepturile asupra acestei ediţii aparţin Editurii Artes. Orice reproducere parţială sau integrală a textului sau exemplelor se pedepseşte conform legilor în vigoare.

Coperta Revistei Artes 5

CUPRINS

  1. LAURA VASILIU: Laudatio Pascal Bentoiu

    REZUMAT

  2. PASCAL BENTOIU: Omul de cultura in lumea contemporana

    REZUMAT

  3. GHEORGHE FIRCA: Conota]ii fluctuante ale termenilor de armonie si de filarmonica in viata artistica romaneasca

    REZUMAT

  4. GABRIELA OCNEANU: Apartenenta manuscrisului 1060 de la Lvov la scoala de la Putna

    REZUMAT

  5. GHEORGHE DUTICA: Simfonia I — Glossa de Viorel Munteanu

    REZUMAT

  6. LUMINITA DUTICA: Aspecte ale multivocalitatii in creatia muzicala a lui Zeno Vancea

    REZUMAT

  7. LAURA VASILIU: Macroforma genului

    REZUMAT

  8. MIHAELA-LIDIA CORDUBAN: Intoarcerea la Bach

    REZUMAT

  9. LILIANA GHERMAN: Sonatele lui Domenico Scarlatti - Cateva consideratii asupra formei

    REZUMAT

  10. VICTORIA MELNIC: Genurile bisericesti in creatia lui Hector Berlioz

    REZUMAT

  11. GABRIELA PAVALCU: Modalitati de prelucrare polifonica in Octetul pentru instrumente de suflat de Igor Stravinski

    REZUMAT

  12. ROMEO COSMA: Directii, orientari, tendinte in muzica de jazz din a doua jumatate a secolului XX

    REZUMAT

  13. VALENTINA SANDU-DEDIU: Despre muzicologia si critica muzicala in actualitatea romaneasca

    REZUMAT

  14. MARILENA LUIUZ: Tragedia — conceptualitate si istoricitate

    REZUMAT

  15. CATALIN SAVA: Muzica si timp — Provocari ale contemporaneitatii

    REZUMAT

  16. LOREDANA IATESEN: Muzica contemporana - Fascinatie sau sperietoare?

    REZUMAT

  17. ADA BURLUI: Pledoarie pentru o filozofie a cantului

    REZUMAT

  18. IOAN FLORIN DIACONU: Conditionari psihologice ale citirii la prima vedere

    REZUMAT

  19. ROSINA CATERINA FILIMON: Efectul Mozart — Sonata KV 448

    REZUMAT


Redactor: Prof. univ. Liliana Gherman

Coperta: ing. Emilian Popa

Artes.Revistă de muzicologie publică studii de cercetare în următoarele domenii ale muzicologiei: Istoria muzicii, Teoria muzicii, Analiză muzicală, Estetică muzicală, Etnomuzicologie, Bizantinologie muzicală, Teoria interpretării muzicale.

În revistă se publică trei tipuri de articole științifice: 1. Studii/articole originale, de cercetare (10-30 pagini). 2. Lucrări prezentate la conferințe (8-10 pagini); 3. Recenzii de carte (3-5 pagini).

1. Rezumat și cuvinte cheie

  • Manuscrisul trebuie să conțină un rezumat de 200-300 de cuvinte.
  • Cuvintele cheie sunt o componentă a procesului de înscriere a articolului spre publicare și trebuie să fie incluse în finalul rezumatului. Se solicită până la cinci cuvinte cheie, care să descrie conținutul manuscrisului și care să faciliteze accesarea articolului în bazele de date online.

2. Manuscrisul

Textul trebuie să fie precis și consistent, evitându-se utilizarea fonturilor speciale sau a formatărilor elaborate în scop estetic. Se solicită trimiterea manuscrisului în limbile română și engleză. Exprimarea trebuie să fie clară și coerentă în ambele limbi. Varianta în limba engleză nu poate prezenta diferențieri/modificări majore în raport cu varianta în limba română trimisă spre recenzare.

Pentru a se asigura anonimatul în procesul de peer review, manuscrisul și rezumatul nu trebuie să conțină nicio referire la identitatea autorului sau afilierea instituțională. Articolul (intitulat „document principal”) va fi însoțit de un document intitulat „document de identificare”, în care se vor menționa: numele și prenumele autorului, titlul academic, instituția la care este afiliat, orașul, țara, adresa de e-mail și numărul de telefon. Ulterior, după primirea acceptului de publicare, autorii vor trimite varianta revizuită a lucrărilor, inserând datele de identificare specificate în model.

3. Tabele și exemple grafice

Tabelele și imaginile trebuie să fie de înaltă calitate, în unul din formatele TIFF, JPEG sau PNG, publicabile alb/negru. Exemplele muzicale, fotografiile, graficele și orice alte ilustrații trebuie verificate din punctul de vedere al acurateții înainte de trimiterea manuscrisului de către autor. De asemenea, trebuie însoțite de un text explicativ. Autorul este responsabil de obținerea permisiunii de reproducere a extraselor sau a ilustrațiilor și/sau exemplelor muzicale. În cazul utilizării materialelor grafice protejate de legea drepturilor de autor, permisiunea trebuie obținută atât pentru publicarea pe suport de hârtie, cât și pentru cea online.

4. Detalii tehnice

Manuscrisul trebuie trimis online pe adresa laura.vasiliu@arteiasi.ro ; vasiliulora@gmail.com .

Textul trebuie redactat în format Word, salvat ca .docx / .doc. Lucrarea finală va fi trimisă către colegiul editorial și în format .pdf.

Pentru citate se vor folosi ghilimele și caractere grafice normale (nu italice). Punctuația în cadrul citatului trebuie să fie identică cu originalul, cu excepția cazului în care se utilizează doar un fragment dintr-o frază (se va încheia cu punct).

5. Redactarea referințelor

În text nu se folosesc note de subsol, ci referințe. Toate referințele trebuie să fie redactate conform indicațiilor din model.

Formatare text:

Descarcă model formatare

Politica de evaluare (Peer Review)

Artes. Revistă de muzicologie își propune evaluarea promptă și publicarea tuturor materialelor ce primesc acceptul comitetului redacțional al publicației. Pentru asigurarea unor standarde de înaltă calitate științifică a conținutului publicat, toate articolele propuse sunt supuse unui proces de evaluare riguros. Caracteristicile procesului de peer review sunt următoarele:

  1. Nu va fi acceptat niciun manuscris înscris pentru publicare simultan în mai multe jurnale.
  2. Manuscrisele al căror conținut se plasează în afara ariei tematice a revistei nu vor fi luate în considerare pentru procesul de peer review.
  3. Textele vor fi distribuite unui număr de cel puțin doi experți, desemnați de colegiul redacțional.
  4. Dacă se impune, editorii au posibilitatea să consulte evaluatori suplimentari. În acest caz, autorul va fi informat de recomandarea editorilor pentru o evaluare suplimentară.
  5. Autorii vor primi din partea editorilor un raport prin e-mail, cu comentariile și recomandările celor doi evaluatori. Manuscrisele corectate vor fi retrimise editorilor.
  6. Toate deciziile referitoare la publicare aparțin redactorului șef al jurnalului, pe baza rapoartelor evaluatorilor. Autorii textelor respinse în urma procesului de peer review vor fi informați în cel mai scurt timp.
  7. Toate manuscrisele propuse spre publicare sunt tratate ca documente confidențiale. De asemenea, se impune comisiei editoriale și comitetului de evaluatori aceeași politică de confidențialitate în ceea ce privește materialele în curs de evaluare.
  8. Editorii și evaluatorii implicați în procesul de peer review trebuie să declare eventualele conflicte de interese de orice natură cu autorii, fiind obligați la exonerarea din cazurile în care aceste conflicte periclitează o evaluare obiectivă. Informațiile sau ideile confidențiale obținute în urma procesului de peer review nu vor fi folosite în scopuri ilicite.
  9. Toate manuscrisele înscrise pentru publicare vor fi verificate pentru plagiat (texte copiate din alte surse) și auto-plagiat (reproducerea unor secțiuni substanțiale ale propriilor scriere publicate ale autorului însuși, fără oferirea referințelor adecvate). Plagiatul nu este permis.
  10. Procesul de evaluare a publicației este confidențial și identitatea comitetului de evaluatori nu poate fi făcută publică.

CRITERII DE EVALUARE

Criterii calitative:

  1. Relevanța subiectului în contextul ariei tematice propuse de revistă.
  2. Valoarea științifică a manuscrisului: rigoarea științifică, corectitudinea și acuratețea informațiilor.
  3. Calitatea exprimării: modul de expunere a ideilor, claritatea mesajului.
  4. Strategia de tratare a subiectului clar organizată și coerentă.
  5. Gradul de interes: interesul științific al rezultatelor obținute în urma cercetării.
  6. Extensia: conținutul lucrării deține un interes științific suficient pentru a justifica extensia manuscrisului.
  7. Bibliografia este adecvată, corectă și completă, incluzând cele mai recente cercetări în tematica propusă.

Criterii de prezentare:

  1. Structura: articolul trebuie să cuprindă elementele esențiale – rezumat, introducere, tratare și concluzii.
  2. Titlul să fie reprezentativ și să descrie clar conținutul articolului.
  3. Rezumatul să însumeze informațiile esențiale ale articolului, este complet și clar formulat.
  4. Relevanța exemplelor, diagramelor, tabelelor și imaginilor.
  5. Concluziile să fie clare, logice și justificate prin demersul analitic.
  6. Calitatea exprimării, erorile gramaticale și de tehnoredactare. Pentru articolele în limba engleză, exprimarea defectuoasă, ce periclitează sensul mesajului științific, va fi semnalată editorului în raportul de evaluare.

Comenzi

Comenzile se primesc pe adresa de e-mail laura.vasiliu@arteiasi.ro

Expedierea cărților se va face cu plata ramburs.

Informații necesare:

  • NUME:
  • PRENUME:
  • ADRESA DE LIVRARE:
  • STRADA:
  • ORAȘ:
  • COD POȘTAL:
  • JUDEȚ:
  • E-MAIL:
  • Nr. Revistei Artes dorit:
  • Nr. de exemplare dorite:

Editura ARTES – Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

ISSN print: 1224 - 6646

ISSN online: 2558 - 8524

ISSN-L: 1224 - 6646

Str. Costache Negruzzi 7-9, 700126, Iaşi, România

Tel.: 0040232.210458

Fax: 0040232.216637

Revista ARTES poate fi găsită în bibliotecile următoarelor instituții din țară și străinătate:

  • Universitatea Națională de Muzică București (UNMB), București
  • Academia de Muzică „Gheorghe Dima”, Cluj-Napoca
  • Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Facultatea de Teologie Reformată, Domeniul Muzică – Specializarea Pedagogie Muzicală, Cluj-Napoca
  • Universitatea Transilvania, Facultatea de Muzică, Braşov
  • Universitatea de Vest, Facultatea de Muzică și Teatru, Timișoara
  • Universitatea Emanuel, Facultatea de Teologie, Pedagogie Muzicală, Oradea
  • Universitatea de Arte, Facultatea de Arte în Limba Română, Departamentul de Muzică, Tg. Mureș
  • Universitatea Valahia, Facultatea de Științe și Arte, Specializarea Pedagogie Muzicală, Târgoviște
  • Universitatea Ovidius, Facultatea de Arte, Interpretare Muzicală (Canto) și Pedagogie Muzicală, Constanța
  • Universitatea Dunărea de Jos, Facultatea de Arte, Departamentul de Teatru, Muzică și Arte plastice, Galați
  • Facultatea de Teologie Ortodoxă „Sfânta Muceniță Filofteia”, Domeniul Muzică – Pedagogie Muzicală, Pitești
  • Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova
  • “Ion Creangă“ State Pedagogical University Kishinev, Republic of Moldavia
  • Tudor Arghezi Library of Arts, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova
  • National Library of Republic of Moldova, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova
  • “Alecu Russo“ State University, Balti, Republic of Moldova
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Santa Cecilia”, Roma, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Giuseppe Verdi”, Milano, Italy
  • Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Musica e Spettacolo, Italy
  • Conservatorio Giuseppe Verdi, Torino, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica "Cesare Pollini", Padova
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Benedetto Marcello” Venezia, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Alfredo Casella”, L’Aquila, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Luisa D'Annunzio”, Pescara, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Giovanni Battista Pergolesi”, Fermo, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Claudio Monteverdi”, Bolzano, Italy
  • Conservatorio Statale di Musica „Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina”, Cagliari, Italy
  • Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu, Barcelona, Spain
  • Conservatorio Profesional de Música de Salamanca, Spain
  • Conservatorio Profesional de Música de Valencia, Spain
  • Conservatorio Superior de Música de Murcia "Manuel Massotti Little", Spain
  • Escola Superior de Artes e Design (ESAD), Porto, Portugal
  • Library of “Phaeton” Conservatory, Alexandroupoli, Greece
  • Lillian Voudouri Great Music Library of Athens, Greece
  • Hellenic American University, Athens, Greece
  • European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • “Joseph Haydn” Konservatorium des Landes Burgenland, Eisenstadt, Austria
  • VIA University College, Viborg, Danemarca
  • Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HiOA), Oslo, Norway
  • Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania
  • National Music Academy “Prof. Pancho Vladigerov”, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • “Franz Liszt” Academy of Music, Budapest, Hungary
  • ”Mimar Sinan” Fine Arts University, Istanbul, Turkey
  • Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur, Turkey
  • Sabanci University, Tuzla, Turkey

Editura si Tipografia „Artes” nu au personalitate juridica, ele apartin de Universitatea Națională de Arte „George Enescu” Iași

Coperta Revistei Artes

ARTES. JOURNAL OF MUSICOLOGY publishes research studies in major fields of musicology: Music History, Music Theory, Music Analysis, Musical Aesthetics, Ethnomusicology, Musical Byzantinology, Theory of musical performance.

Conceived as a volume of studies in the theory of art (music, theatre, fine arts), the 1st issue of ARTES magazine was published by the "George Enescu" University of Arts in Iaşi in 1996. Starting with the 4th issue, the thematic profile of the magazine has become exclusively musical. Its contents and frequency of appearance have been closely related to the National Musicology Symposium "The Science of Music" (organised, beginning with 1997, by the "George Enescu" University of Arts), to the National Musicology Symposium "Identity and stylistic contexts in Romanian musical works" (initiated by the same institution in 2007), to the International Byzantinology Symposium initiated in 2008 and to the objectives of Research centre "The science of music", accreditted by CNCSIS in 2004.

Beginning with the 11th issue, magazine ARTES has become bilingual and published in the languages of Romanian and English. The topic areas have extended to research in Byzantinology, while beginning with the 15th issue the magazine was renamed to Artes. Journal of Musicology.

Artes. Journal of musicology has been indexed in CEEOL (Central and Eastern European Online Library) and ERIHPLUS (European Reference Index for The Humanities and Social Sciences)


Translators

Assist. prof. Maria Cristina Misievici, PhD Candidate

Emanuel Vasiliu, Ph.D. candidate


DTP:

Eng. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

www.artes-iasi.ro



General infomation

First issue: 1996.

First biliangual Romanian/ English issue: 2011


© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

Costache Negruzzi street, no. 7-9, 700126, Iaşi, Romania

Phone no.: +40232.210458

Fax: +40232.216637

E-mail: laura.vasiliu@arteiasi.ro

ARTES. JOURNAL OF MUSICOLOGY

  • Editor-in-chief – Prof. PhD. Laura Vasiliu, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania
  • Senior editor – Prof. PhD. Liliana Gherman, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:

  • Prof. PhD. Gheorghe Duțică, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania
  • Prof. PhD. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Prof. PhD. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest, Romania
  • Prof. PhD. Pavel Pușcaș, “Gheorghe Dima” Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Prof. PhD. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia
  • Prof. PhD. Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova
  • Prof. PhD. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germany
  • Prof. PhD. Nikos Maliaras, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
  • Lect. PhD. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

EDITORS:

  • Assoc. Prof. PhD. Irina Zamfira Dănilă „George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași
  • Lect. PhD. Diana Beatrice Andron „George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași
  • Lect. PhD. Rosina Caterina Filimon „George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași
  • Lect. PhD. Gabriela Vlahopol „George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași

Coperta Revistei Artes 16

Romanian music – stylistic identity and context

How are Romanian music works situated in the European or worldwide context – this has been the fundamental topic of musicological research in Romania for twenty years, to which the contents of issue 16 of Artes. Journal of musicology are affiliated. By studying both historical and contemporary Romanian composition in relation to the world of music, the authors of the articles, also present in the similarly-themed symposion at the 19th edition of the FESTIVAL OF ROMANIAN MUSIC, Iaşi, October 2016, intend to overcome the paradoxical peak stage of 1970 to 1990. On the one hand, that period was characterised by an eruption of substantial information, by a scientific level and the originality manifested especially in the study of George Enescu's works. On another hand, however, a nationalistic ideology coupled with an increasingly abstract/conceptual analysis of musical language and the lack of translations into European languages determined the composition of a unilateral partial picture and deepened the low level of knowledge of our music available in the international artistic and scientific world. Varying in range, the studies featured in this issue offer novel topics in the announced thematic area: rediscussing old Romanian music from the perspective of the relativity in contemporary historical researh, reassessing works or texts about music by connecting them to the European sources of the time, specific contributions to the knowledge about certain compositions, theoretical concepts belonging to Romanian composers from neighbouring territories, premiere analyses of recent works, etc. We continue to present volumes of musicology by reviewing a substantial and significant restitution to the research of Romanian folklore. Ph.D. candidates, developing musicologists or personalities of musical research from Iaşi, Bucharest, Chişinău, Braşov propose a dialogue of ideas about and images of the Romanian art of sound through the contemporary means and directions of the science of music.

Editor-in-chief,
Prof. Laura Vasiliu, PhD

CONTENT

STUDIES

  1. CARMEN CHELARU - “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Iași, Romania - Required Dichotomies in the Romanian (Music) History – Regarding Antique and Medieval Eras

    ABSTRACT

    History recounts subjective facts and thoughts that nevertheless must be approached impartially. Two important historians, Neagu Djuvara and Lucian Boia discuss this topic in a new perspective, far from sympathies and antipathies, as well as manipulations of any kind. So, they provide a valuable example that may also be applied to the history of arts, including the Romanian musical art. The study provides a synthetic view on the history of music in the Carpatho-Danubian territory over three periods – pre-Roman, Daco-Roman, and Middle Ages. Although there is little material evidence about Thracians, Getae and Dacians, a lot has been said and written on this issue. As long as we lack sufficient internal and plausible evidence, we may just make suppositions concerning the music of these ancestors. Folklore was the oldest musical branch that had preceded the formation of the Romanian language. It is difficult though to establish whether traditional artistic productions belonged to the Getae-Dacian layer or to the Latin one. Two branches may be identified in the early local medieval music: the traditional and the religious one. The first did not evolve differently compared to the previous period. The religious music developed according to the social organization and ethnic statements. The genuine Middle Ages brought with it the existence of three important musical branches: folklore, religious and court music. This writing does not seek to be original but rather aims to provide an objective image referring at information and documents found by famous historians and historians of music.

  2. LOREDANA IAȚEȘEN - “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Iaşi, Romania - Alexandru Zirra’s Stage Creation in National and International Context

    ABSTRACT

    Alexandru Zirra, a prominent personality from the interwar musical period of Iaşi, whose impressive work, carried out across various fields (composition, performance, musicology, teaching) has challenged researchers to dedicate many pages to him in their specialized volumes, unfortunately continues to be surrounded by mystery even in the 21st century. Although his creations, across all genres (chamber, choral, symphonic, vocal-symphonic, opera) have been analyzed, and glowing reviews have been written on the occasion of some first auditions, the majority of his opuses have remained virtually unknown. For example, only two of his five significant stage creations (the historical opera Alexandru Lăpuşneanu and the fairy-opera Capra cu trei iezi [The Goat with Three Goatlings]) were performed at the Romanian National Opera in Bucharest in 1941, just a few years before his passing (1946). This is a discouraging fact, given that we are referring to a musician with a mobilizing artistic temperament, who strived, throughout his career, to promote his work. The lack of interest from the part of professional musical institutions in interpreting Alexandru Zirra’s opuses, from all genres, yet especially those from the lyrical theatre genre, has determined us to review the literature on the topic. We have discovered that most authors have commented on his creations in relation with their creator’s belonging to the interwar generation. Therefore, in our research, we will adopt a general approach to Alexandru Zirra’s performances from a historical and stylistic perspective, not only in the national context, but also in relation to the trends and opuses from the West European music of the first decades of the 20th century.

  3. ROXANA SUSANU - National College of Music “George Enescu”, București, Romania - Dimitrie Cuclin Analyzing the Modes in the Romanian Folk Music

    ABSTRACT

    The original and prolific composer Dimitrie Cuclin conceived a particular musical system, with metaphysical correspondences, implemented by him in his own creation. The theoretical model of his functional system could be a starting point of a new and coherent interpretation of the modalism in the Romanian folk song. Being nonconformist and provocative, Cuclin reconsidered the old tonal system, starting from neo-Pythagorean principles, and reorganized the musical functions and their relations following a personal logic, manifesting in his theories and compositions the obstinacy of a philosopher in scholasticism. The Tonic, the Dominant, the Subdominant and the Leading tone get roles which are sometimes in contradiction with the traditional musical logic, but their roles are redefined from the perspective of a movement between two parallel universes described in his metaphysical works. His musical thinking included the ideas of his contemporaries (Vincent d’Indy, Hugo Riemann) and is similar to those of Ernst Kurth, Wilhelm Worringer, but his meta-musical conception based on psychology and metaphysics led to a more subtle analysis of the Romanian folk modes and left a specific stylistic mark on his compositions inspired from the modal system, which are peculiar in the Romanian music. His music turns into an image of a superior world, and the understanding of its elements (the musical tonal functions) and their relations leads finally to the knowledge of the physical and metaphysical universe.

  4. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU - “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Iași, Romania - Reconsidering Pascal Bentoiu’s Aesthetics in the Light of European Sources, International Synchronisation and Contemporary Application Orientations

    ABSTRACT

    Published in the early 1970s (Imagine şi sens, 1971, Deschideri spre lumea muzicii, 1973, Gîndirea muzicală, 1975), Pascal Bentoiu’s theoretical works had a paradoxical destiny. On the one hand, they informed many musicians, being included in the mandatory bibliography of courses in aesthetics at conservatories in Romania; on the other hand, substantial proof of the understanding of and capitalization on the works can be found neither in the press of the time nor in the subsequently published scientific literature. The simple explanation is that his romantic concept of idealist philosophy based on readings in Kant, Hegel and Bergson was clearly expressed – despite some attempts (rhetorical tricks) at hiding it – and at odds with the dominant Marxist materialism of the years of publication. This study identifies a few fundamental ideas of his aesthetic concept centered on the psychology of reception, like: 1. The primordial character of a global perception of musical articulation/composition (metaphorically expressed through the term of image) in relation to the analytical process of sonic parameters; 2. the primacy of (creative and receptive) musical awareness before the physical laws of sonic material; 3. the constitution of musical thinking as a logical mental activity operating with “phonic identities” on the axes of time and space, psychologically/metaphysically connected through the formula “spacial-temporal continuum”. Comparing Pascal Bentoiu’s concept with his main theoretical source – Ernst Kurth’s Musikpsychologie (1931) –, in its turn a combination of the Gestalt theory (the perception of the whole) with Schopenhauer’s concept of the creative/creator’s will and with the phenomenon of the subconscious revealed by Freud, proves the Romanian aesthetician’s integration with the main flow of European thinking – a singular case in the Romanian musical culture of the time. Revealing possible parallels with American aesthetic positions – we are referring to Leonard Meyer’s originally gestaltist psychological method (Emotion and Meaning in Music, 1956) – and the (indirect) consequences of Bentoiu’s concepts at the level of contemporary musical education, musicological analysis, the psychology of creation are projected as complementary objectives of this research.

  5. PETRUȚA-MARIA COROIU “Transilvania” University, Brașov, Romania - Iconic Images in the Aurel Stroe’s Concertos

    ABSTRACT

    Among the original images which distinguish Aurel Stroe’s creation from a stylistic point of view the most representative are: “sonorous objects”, “the dissipative fugue”, “the matrix-chord”, “the separate evolution”, “the carnival”, “the secret harmony”. The esthetic explication of these concepts integrated in the musical discourse and their connection with the sonorous expressive level offer multiple satisfactions to those who study in depth Aurel Stroe’s musical creation.

  6. SVETLANA BADRAJAN - Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova - Aspects of Capitalizing on the Folkloric Source in the Work Concerto Brevis The Clock by Valentin Doni

    ABSTRACT

    Valentin Doni (born 1955), originally from Moldova, is a complex musician, known as conductor, composer and performer. In the general context of contemporary music, he has captured the interest of both melomaniacs and industry critics. The national musical ethos, as the composer mentioned himself, has always been his source of inspiration. He attempted and succeeded at “reconciling” folklore melodies with modern compositional techniques. His extremely personal way of musical thinking has evolved over the years into a perfect use of musical folklore, which he adjusted to his own musical thought and which was ultimately essential in creating original artistic works. Proof of this is Concerto Brevis The Clock, which stands out through its structural and conceptual unity, its dynamism, the logic of the musical discourse, and the rich orchestration. The musical theme, on which the musical variations are based, has been taken across from the repertoire of the folk musician Filip Todirascu. Concerto Brevis The Clock is a unique example of capitalizing on the folkloric source in the most direct and profound way. Valentin Doni uses a well-known folkloric source creatively, transforming it into a masterpiece of academic music. This is due to his talent to perceive timber nuances, to orchestrate, and manipulate the musical sonority, as well as his deep knowledge of music and of aspects of traditional violin performance.

  7. NATALIA CHICIUC - Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova - Traditional and Innovative Aspects in Gheorghe Neaga’s Quartet no. 3 for Strings

    ABSTRACT

    The present study is an analytical sketch of one of the Gheorghe Neaga’s last opuses – Quartet no.3 for strings. As a result of studying the two movements of the work we will find that the author remains an adept of tradition while rallying at the same time to the innovations that presents the postmodern period. Between these the main role is given to formal principle, which is found in a double hypostases: old and new. In a bipartite architectural structure – avoiding the classic romantic quadrature –, the creation includes a number of important innovations introduced by the composer based on regularities known for centuries. These include some differences between movements (by number of measures, by sectioning accuracy of forms) and the issue of the lyrical quartet center location. But can not be ignored any other representations of the musical language. Without neglecting the thematism and its treatment techniques, must be mentioned, however, the surprising relationship between polyphony and harmony. And the fact that tonal gives the way to modal techniques, it is not a new for the composer's period of maturity. In this context, although dedicated to a classical genre, the work is further proof that the string quartet has always been a laboratory in which to experiment with new ways of expression, harmony, polyphony, etc. Therefore, being a traditional modernist, Gheorghe Neaga does not innovate so radically the musical language, but uses modern language if necessary.

  8. LEONARD DUMITRIU - “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Iași, Romania - Related Sonorous Metaphors in the Lieds for Voice and Piano by Roxana Pepelea and Leonard Dumitriu, on Vasile Burlui’s Lyrics

    ABSTRACT

    This research paper is focused on the compositional methods that the two music creators resort to, in a definitely unique project for the Romanian contemporary musical space, if not internationally. Taking eight poems by Vasile Burlui, as a starting point, Leonard Dumitriu and Roxana Pepelea write music on the same lyrics, roughly the same time, yet without discussing each other’s creative vision. Members of the same generation, alumni of “George Enescu” Music Academy in Iaşi, late Vasile Spătărelu’s composition class, in the 80’s of the last century, the two protagonists of the voluntary experiment prove amazing resemblances (or perhaps less so …) in their deep compositional thinking, and produce similar responses to many of the ideational problems raised by the lyrics. Since the very first audition of the lieds, the two composers have noticed that, beyond Vasile Burlui’s exquisite, unique feelings and emotions, which are unavoidable and can therefore only be mirrored in their music, they are bound by their former mentor’s simple, human, bright soul depth. Especially in one of Roxana Pepelea’s lieds, the playful imagination of “Made”, as friends and students would call Spătărelu, brightly transpires and leaves no room for interpretations in terms of conceptual descent. The experiment outcomes are 16 lieds in a mirror, which confirm the strength, reliability and viability of the compositional school in Iaşi.

REVIEWS

  1. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ - “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Iași, Romania

    Reclaiming Bukovina’s Musical Folklore Heritage Collected by Alexandru Voevidca at the Beginning of the 20th Century for the Contemporary

EDITORIAL

Editor-in-chief – Prof. PhD. Laura Vasiliu, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Senior editor – Prof. PhD. Liliana Gherman, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Prof. PhD. Gheorghe Duțică, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Prof. PhD. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece)

Prof. PhD. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest, Romania

Prof. PhD. Pavel Pușcaș, “Gheorghe Dima” Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Prof. PhD. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

Prof. PhD. Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova

Prof. PhD. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germany

Prof. PhD. Nikos Maliaras, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Lect. PhD. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

EDITORS

Assoc. Prof. PhD. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Diana Beatrice Andron, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Rosina Caterina Filimon, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Gabriela Vlahopol, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

DTP

Eng. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


Coperta Revistei Artes 15

Creativity, musical life and cultural crossroads in the area of Moldova

Issue number 15 of the journal Artes – renamed Artes. Journal of musicology – groups together scientific studies and book reviews reflecting preoccupations for the research of works and cultural phenomena born in or defining the area of Moldova, with an extension towards Bessarabia and the Ukraine. The content of ideas seems to further the spirit of the International Musicology Conference, Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures. Traditions, influences, identities, a conference organised by the “George Enescu” University of Arts in 2013 – an event which has emphasised the existence of multiple musical and cultural links in the area of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, a musicological topic area still under research. The already traditional collaboration through scientific dialogue between the musicology of Iaşi and the research conducted in Chişinău, and the more recent one with the ethnomusicology practiced in Cernăuţi enable a comparative analysis of both folkloric traditions and present-day compositions. Concurrently, the studies in this issue reflect the musicological activity in Iaşi, with some of them originally as scientific papers presented during Musicology symposium Identity and stylistic contextualisation in Romanian musical works, 4th edition, 2014. Other articles present research in the mentioned content area. The musicological approaches vary both at the level of subdomains and of analysis techniques, attempting to observe the same scientific parameters: inclusion in the sphere of research through consistent references, clarity and coherence of content, terminological accuracy and originality within the subject area. A first category of articles illustrates the musical history of Iaşi, with a general profile of historiographic research – Lost or endangered musical edifices in Iaşi, a study drafted by musicologist and professor of music history Carmen Chelaru – or of monographic research – Ella Urmă. A life dedicated to singing in Iaşi, signed Loredana Iaţeşen, also dedicated to historical works in musical Iaşi. This issue also features studies of contemporary Romanian composers with Moldavian origins – an original analysis of vocal miniatures written by Felicia Donceanu (born in Bacău) – A hermeneutic perspective on two songs by Felicia Donceanu: “Cu penetul” and “La mijloc de codru des” offered by young musicologist Mihaela-Georgiana Balan and the monographic study Liviu Dănceanu – Reflection of music vs. Music of reflection, written by Laura Otilia Vasiliu. The traditions and contemporary works in the old Romanian territories of Bucovina and Bessarabia are represented in the study Folk musical creativity in the development of cultural traditions among youth, a Romanian-Ukranian comparison debated on by Yaryna Vyshpinska from the “Yuriy Fedkovych” Chernivtsi National University. At the same time, compositional and musicological aspects in the Republic of Moldova are eloquently revealed in the article Some of Vladimir Axionov’s musicological outlook on Gheorghe Neaga’s compositions by Natalia Chiciuc, a PhD student in musicology with the Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts in Chişinău. This issue is the first one to feature book reviews by selecting significant publications referring to the musical works of Iaşi – Carmen Chelaru (coord.), Studii de muzicologie de & despre Vasile Spătărelu [Musicology studies by & about Vasile Spătărelu], Iași, Editura Artes, 2015 –, volumes of reference launched in Iaşi – Grigore Constantinescu, Patru secole de operă. Istorie şi stiluri, personalităţi creatoare, capodopere, repertorii [Four centuries of opera. History and styles, creative personalities, works of art, repertoires], București, Editura ONB, 2014 – or by representing bibliographic titles, which are also fundamental for current musical research – Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, London, J.M. Dent & Sons LTD, 1948..

Editor-in-chief,
Prof. Laura Vasiliu, PhD

CONTENT

STUDIES

  1. CARMEN CHELARU, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - Lost or endangered musical edifices in Iași

    ABSTRACT

    The same as Prague or Florence, the city of Iași is a place blessed by the Muses for anyone who is fond of culture. Perhaps nowhere in Romania does exist such a consistency of history, culture and fame as it is here! Our study is not a result of the old times nostalgia, but an alarm to those who should keep available places, things and monuments involved in the Romanian arts, culture and genius. In Salzburg almost each street or building is telling us about Amadeus. Iași includes all sort of memories about famous names, Romanian or European, which unfortunately disappear one by one. On the occasion of the single Romanian Music Festival (18th edition, Iași 2014), we decided to expose information and warnings regarding some musical edifices in Iași which do not exist anymore or they soon disappear. Among others, Ghica House, edifices on Lăpușneanu Street, Sadoveanu estate and further more. Culture means not only being spectator, onlooker, outsider; culture means education, knowledge, morals, law and so on. Unfortunately, as inhabitants of Iaşi city we have to do infinitely more to build a cultural city: socially, economically, and above all as civic attitude!

  2. LOREDANA IAȚEȘEN, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - Ella Urmă. A life dedicated to singing in Iaşi city

    ABSTRACT

    A remarkable personality in the musical life of Iași in the second half of the 20th century, who turned the honorable age of 95 only this year, the soprano and professor Ella Urmă is an example of professional and human dedication. We honour her today both in light of her exceptional performances, which became a reference in the universal and Romanian repertoire, as well as from the perspective of her outstanding career as an elite pedagogue, who facilitated the training and affirmation of young talents on a national and international level. Moreover, her name is associated with the intense organizational activity which she supported in her capacity as founder of the local higher education professional singing school. On the basis of the bibliography provided in dictionaries, encyclopedias, historiographical syntheses, memoirs, chronicles and interviews, this study aims to rebuild a personality from the musical scence of Iași of days gone by, who, in her prestigious artistic life, was uniquely concerned with carving out a lyrical career, in the service of her teaching activity.

  3. NATALIA CHICIUC, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Republic of Moldova - Some of Vladimir Axionov’s musicological outlook on Gheorghe Neaga’s compositions

    ABSTRACT

    Artistic figure of the composer Gheorghe Neaga is an elaborate and indispensable phenomenon for the autochthonous musical art. Among those who offered to the posteriority important musicological researches is found Vladimir Axionov. His investigations – whose object of study is the symphony and symphonic music genres, the evolution or periodization of the autochthonous symphonic music, folklorism and the influence of folklore on the composing techniques, the problem of style, etc. – remain fundamental for the national musicology, and the frequent analysis of the opuses of the composer Gheorghe Neaga in virtually all his studies – separately or together with the research of the compositions of other authors – shows the important role that Neaga’s compositional repertoire plays in the creative processes performed in the local music and in its many trends. However, in almost all investigations signed by Vladimir Axionov – it addresses repeatedly different problems of the history and theory of music – musicologist found masterly examples from the work of Gheorghe Neaga, proposing them up as a model for subsequent musicological researches. Therefore, this article contains some findings of musicologist on various lines of research based on Neaga’s opuses, as three symphonies, vocal symphony Perpetuum Mobile, suite for orchestra, symphonic poem Danco, violin concerts, Quartet No. 1 – all considered

  4. YARYNA VYSHPINSKA, “Yuriy Fedkovych” Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine - Folk musical creativity in the development of cultural traditions among youth

    ABSTRACT

    Culture and traditional music form an integral part of the exploration and penetration of the essence of the national genotype of any nation or nationality. They represent the specific nature of each ethnic group as encrypted in sound, tone and song genres. The formation of folk traditions and customs among young people is important as a way of forging national consciousness and patriotism. Bukovina is a land where different peoples lived and worked together, treating each other with respect, developing their own culture, which became a presentation of every nation. Over time, due to historical circumstances, mutual influence between peoples had developed and strengthened. They became so strong that it affected the creation and borrowing in the traditional musical culture of the peoples of Bukovina – their melodic intonational phrases, rhythmic constructions, modal, metric-rhythmic, thematic, musical and poetic orientations of the folk songs. This is especially seen in joint Ukrainian and Romanian rural communities, where one can still feel the musical flavour of folk songs, dancing, and where instrumental music is united by common traditions and forms of expression. Residents of these areas are not only well-educated in the language, musical culture, customs and traditions of each other, they are also connected by much stronger bonds – bonds of the family, church and community. As for our study, it is important to examine such settlements in Romania, to collect folk songs by Ukrainians living in the South of Bukovina, to make a comparative analysis of samples of folk music, to create a musical encyclopedia of Ukrainian folk songs of the Bukovina, North and South.

  5. MIHAELA-GEORGIANA BALAN, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - A hermeneutic perspective on two songs by Felicia Donceanu: Cu penetul and La mijloc de codru des

    ABSTRACT

    In Romanian musical culture, Felicia Donceanu remains a reference name for having composed songs in which she realised an original synthesis between Romanian folkloric elements and modern intonational systems. The present paper is focused on the compared analysis of two songs composed by F. Donceanu – Cu penetul ca sideful [With plumage as nacre] and La mijloc de codru des [Midst the dense old forest stout], included in the cycle entitled Imagini [Images] based on Mihai Eminescu’s poetry. The detailed analysis of musical language elements represents the basis of the musicological investigation, while the hermeneutic commentary, focused on the symbiotic aspects between sonorous parameters and M. Eminescu’s lyrics is formulated in order to grasp as deeply and widely as possible the semantic substrate of the musical-poetic discourse.

  6. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - Liviu Dănceanu – Reflection of music vs Music of reflection

    ABSTRACT

    The study is an introduction to the works of Liviu Dănceanu, renowned theoretician and practitioner of Romanian music during the last three decades. Liviu Dănceanu was born in 1954 in Roman, he graduated the National University of Music from Bucharest (1980) in the composition class of Ștefan Niculescu. His work includes more than 150 musical works, 20 books in musical philosophy and hermeneutics, numerous articles. As a director and conductor of the Archaeus ensemble, founded in 1985, he has held a rich concert life abroad. He won numerous awards in composition, among which: “Studium de Toulouse Prize”, 1986, The Award of Romanian academy, 1989, awards of UCMR, 1988, 1990, 1994, 2001, 2004, 2006, ACIN award (for film music, 1988). His compositions have been ordered by festivals, musical associations or orchestras worldwide. If at first superficial glance, his work is centered mostly on the creation, interpretation and reflection of musicology, its more attentive reception presents the unity of his artistic manifestations, a permanent contemplation about the world, human condition, the philosophy of art and the fate of music.

REVIEWS

  1. LOREDANA IAŢEŞEN, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - Four centuries of opera in Grigore Constantinescu’s view

    Grigore Constantinescu, Patru secole de operă. Istorie şi stiluri, personalităţi creatoare, capodopere, repertorii [Four centuries of opera. History and styles, creators, masterpieces, repertoires]. București: Editura ONB, 2014.

  2. LAURA OTILIA VASILIU, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - A multiple approach to Vasile Spătărelu’s work

    Carmen Chelaru (coord.), Studii de muzicologie de & despre Vasile Spătărelu [Studies of Musicology by & about Vasile Spătărelu], Iași: Editura Artes, 2015.

  3. CARMEN FERARU, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iași, Romania - Musical Baroque in Manfred Bukofzer’s view

    Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era1, London, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1948.

EDITORIAL

Editor-in-chief – Prof. PhD. Laura Vasiliu, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Senior editor – Prof. PhD. Liliana Gherman, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Prof. PhD. Gheorghe Duțică, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Prof. PhD. Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece)

Prof. PhD. Valentina Sandu-Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest, Romania

Prof. PhD. Pavel Pușcaș, “Gheorghe Dima” Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Prof. PhD. Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia

Prof. PhD. Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova

Prof. PhD. Violeta Dinescu, “Carl von Ossietzky” Universität Oldenburg, Germany

Prof. PhD. Nikos Maliaras, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Lect. PhD. Emmanouil Giannopoulos, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

EDITORS

Assoc. Prof. PhD. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Diana Beatrice Andron, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Rosina Caterina Filimon, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

Lect. PhD. Gabriela Vlahopol, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iași, Romania

DTP

Eng. Victor Dănilă

Carmen Antochi

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


Coperta Revistei Artes 14

The 14th issue of the journal Artes includes a number of contributions of presentations given at the International Conference of Musicology organized between July 4th – 7th 2013 at the George Enescu Arts University of Iasi in collaboration with the Regional Association for the Balkan Countries of the International Musicological Society (IMS) on the topic ”Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities”. The contributors are researchers from Greece, Croatia, Serbia and Romania. Four other studies have been included in this issue, authored by musicologists in Iasi, Bucharest and Timisoara, which broaden the topic initially chosen.

The journal is issued bilingually, with texts in Romanian and English, and translations provided by the authors.

CONTENT

A. Papers presented at the International Conference of Musicology ”Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities”, 4-7 july 2013

  1. KOSTIS DRYGIANAKIS, Volos Academy for Theological Studies, Department of Psaltic Art and Musicology; University of Thessaly, Department of History, Archaeology and Social Anthropology, Greece – “Κατά τους κάτω χρόνους” (“During the latest times”): Some thoughts on the cultural context of Greek chanting during the XIXth and the XXth centuries.

    ABSTRACT

    Although musicologists tend to overpronounce the continuity of Greek Church music (the so-called ‘Byzantine’) from the medieval times till our days, the 19th century is a period of radical changes. In a geographical area earlier dominated by imperia, the development of nationalism creates new perspectives as well as new problems, and this becomes very clear in the birth of autocephalous national Churches that break up the tradition of ecumenism. The procedures that end up to the formation of nations and national states in the region (like the effort for standardization of national languages and the development of what Benedict Anderson calls “print capitalism”) obviously trigger changes in the chanting art, which gets more systematic, homogenous and clearly entrenched inside national borders. The development of civil structures (like societies, organizations and educational institutions) suggests new patterns of musical activity, which gradually depart form the religious devotional life and later become dominant carriers of the Church music. These carriers create new channels for dissemination of the music and introduce new elements into the music aesthetics, a procedure that continues till today. The modern, West-European scientific historical and musicological approaches give rise to various questions about the present state of the chanting art and about the aesthetic qualities of chanting, at times guiding to reconstructive projects while in other cases developing theoretical documentations of the practices in use. Round the change of the century, recordings and the musical industry introduce even more new aproaches, not only in methods of writing down the music but also in ways of perceiving it. The development of formal musical education and research in the next years brings to the surface even more issues. Given all these changes, one comes to the question: To which extend the contemporary performances of the Greek Church music resemble their older counterparts?

  2. IOANNIS LIAKOS; SEVI MAZERA, Higher Ecclesiastical Academy of Vella of Ioannina; Municipal Conservatory of Volo, Greece – Dionysios Foteinos: a Greek melourgos in Romania. Nektarios Vlachos: a Romanian melourgos on Mount Athos. Their enchanted Doxologies.

    ABSTRACT

    After the first blossom period of Psaltic art during the post-Byzantine period, the melopoitiko kind of Doxologies presents great development and wide acceptance. Certainly, such rise does not appear suddenly but draws its affect from the famous 17th century group of four: Balasios the priest, Petros Bereketes, Panagiotis Chrysafis the new and Germanos of New Patras. Along with these, a significant number of prominent musicians - melourgoi deliver a series of Doxologies composed in all eight echoi (modes). Daniel Protopsaltes, Petros Lambadarios, Iakovos Protopsaltes and Petros Byzantios are some of the last composers – melourgoi of Doxologies of the period between 18th and 19th centuries. To them we owe on one hand the creation and recording on musical manuscripts of the so-called slow (αργή) and brief (σύντομη) tradition on psaltic compositions according to the new kind of melopeoia and on the other the introduction of this Psaltic tradition to the Danubian Principalities and Black Sea territories at this period. Dionisios Fotinos, a great Greek scholar, poet, painter, writer, famous Psalt (chanter) and melourgos (composer) follower of the Psaltic tradition of Constantinople (as a student of Iakovos Protopsaltes and Petros Byzantios) and Ieromonachos Nektarios Prodromitis Vlachos, experienced melourgos who came from Wallachia in his way to Mount Athos, they both constitute the link to the continuity of the Psaltic tradition at Mount Athos and the Danubian Principalities. Two musical manuscripts at the Library of the Romanian Academy in Bucharest as well as one at the University of Thessaloniki and the printed version of Christodoulos Georgiades Kessaniaios (1856), preserve the Doxologies of Dionisios Fotinos. On the other hand, the Doxologies of Nektarios Vlachos, both his own as well as his adaptations of Doxologies of Greek melourgoi in the Romanian language, are displayed in many Mount Athos musical manuscripts

  3. CONSTANTINOS KARAGOUNIS, Assistant Professor of Byzantine Church Music - Supreme Ecclesiastical Academy of Athens. Director of Department of Psaltic Art and Musicology of the Volos’ Theological Academy, Greece – The Orthodox Synaxaria as direct and indirect sources of the independent science “Musicology of the Psaltic Art” and its specific scientific disciplines.

    ABSTRACT

    The Musicology of the Psaltic Art, as a relatively recent science, is still in that “precocious” situation, a typical feature of which -at least, in Greece- is the absence of clearly defined sectors of scientific research. The direct and primary need for investigation of the theoretical and musical sources, as well as for study and comprehension of the development of the notation, necessarily left “for a later day” the activity in other directions; directions like the Didactic and Pedagogic of Psaltic Art, its Morphology and Analysis, its Anthropology and Psychology, its Comparative Musicology and other equally important ones. Among them, we think that the research on the Theology and Literature of the Psaltic Art is a extremely important sector; through its conclusions one could go through all the theological teachings, the “theologiseis” of the Church Fathers about the Holy Psalmody, and at the same time through all the direct and indirect historical evidences of the Church and non-Church literature on the orthodox liturgical music. Aiming to an official definition of the sector of Theology and Literature of the Psaltic Art, the Orthodox Synaxaria is a “sine qua non” field for research, which comes out to be a very important source. The texts of Synaxaria contain many interesting elements about Holy Psalmody, which can be epitomized in the following aspects.

    • Psalmody as an uninterrupted, non-stop action of the Heaven’s Church of Angels and Saints, for endless glorification of the Most-Sacred Trinity God.
    • Church Music as a guiding and saving vehicle inside the Orthodox Holy Worship, which has been cultivated and shaped by the enlightened “ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ” Church Fathers, the sacred hymnographers, “melodoi” (hymnographers and also composers) and chanters.
    • Psaltic as an Art, having close ties and being inseparably linked with the ritual elements of the Orthodox Worship, an Art which, however, went through gradual modification, reaching through the centuries high levels of artistry and virtuosity.
    • Psalmody as a personal prayer and as a vehicle for prayer into the orthodox experience of the Church in general, and of the individual faithful in particular.
    • The non-Church music, the instruments, the secular songs, the dances and the relevant, the entertainments, the popular-folk feasts and festivals etc, are demonical tools and instruments of the devil, in his effort for “stealing” the spirit of man away from the Kingdom of the God.

  4. CONSTANȚA CRISTESCU, ”Bucovina” Cultural Centre, Suceava, Romania – Landmarks of the style in the Romanian psaltic music on the XIXth century. A case study.

    ABSTRACT

    Given the fact that the compositional personality of the Psalter was hardly recognized and still is hardly recognized nowadays, through the case study I propose I prove that the great personalities of the musicological byzantine literature from the nineteenth century imposed themselves not only through the masterful handling of the well-known rhetorical patterns, but also through their own creative techniques, which customizes them stylistically. I compared the solutions of the Byzantine interpretation of the text Anastasima Eothina in second mode by Macarie the Hieromonk, Dimitrie Suceveanu and Nectarie Vlachos at the architectural conception level, of the proportioning of the form, of the lexicon grouped by syntactic functions, of the ornamental system and of the melo-rhythmic dynamic.

  5. SANJA MAJER-BOBETKO, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, University of Zagreb, Croatia – Croatian music-historiographical syntheses in the first half of the XXth century.

    ABSTRACT

    This paper has developed as a result of the research done in the framework of the scholarly project Croatian music historiography before 1945, which has been funded by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport of the Republic of Croatia. So far, the research in music historiography of the 19th century has been concluded.
    A completed bibliography includes works by Croatian authors active in Croatia or abroad as well as works by authors from other countries who dealt with historical issues related to Croatian music. A sum of more than 3000 recorded relevant bibliographic units so far might provide evidence of a multiple increase of the number of music-historiographical sources compared to the 19th century (around 460 were published altogether), and through analytical approach it has already been determined in this moment of the research that a great number of them surpass the previous period in its scholarly and/or professional relevance. Since Croatian music historiography of the first half of the 20th century was much more professionalized than that of the 19th century, its results were more respectable. This is seen in numerous articles and studies as well as in the music-historiographical syntheses.
    While in the 19th century only one general music history was written (but not published) in the period between 1911 and 1944 three general music histories and five national histories were published. Four of them dealt with Croatian and one with Slovakian music history. Finally, a book on Croatian music history by non- Croatian author Ivan Kamburov was published in Sofia in 1942. The authors of general music histories were Stjepan Hadrović (1911), Josip Andreis (1942) and Hubert Pettan (1942, 21943), of Croatian music histories Božidar Širola (1922, 1942), Branimir Ivakić (1930), and Hubert Pettan (1944), and of Slovakian Josip Andrić (1944). Structural odels and/or concepts, including ideological ones, are going to be displayed in the paper.

  6. STEFANKA GEORGIEVA, Faculty of Education, Trakia University – Stara Zagora, Bulgaria – Musical-cultural activities in the Bulgarian emigrant communities in Romania in the second half of the XIXth century.

    ABSTRACT

    The presentation emphasizes on the musical-cultural activities performed in Brǎila, a town called by historians “the cultural capital of the Bulgarian Diaspora”. Some of the initiatives of the immigration, besides the numerous popular concerts before the citizenry and at the homes of the rich Bulgarian families, go beyond regional life and reflect on the development of the pre-liberation and postliberation Bulgarian musical culture. First of all, this refers to the appearance of forms of organized musical life with the creation of the Bulgarian-Romanian Musical Society ”Muza” (1867) and of the Bulgarian Philharmonic Society ”Mara” (1869). The ten-year stay in Brǎila of Dobri Voynikov, one of the most famous writers of the Bulgarian National Revival, as well as his co-operation with the Romanian playwright Iorgu Caragiale, stimulates the writing of “dramas with singing” which the researchers of the Bulgarian musical theatre, quite reasonably, place in the entrance of its history. Among his associates are the brothers Isidor and Mihail Mihalidi (Mihaylovich) for whose performer’s and creative activities no analog is found in early Bulgarian musical culture.

B. Papers with various topics

  1. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ, “George Enescu” University of Arts – Iaşi Romania – Mihail Berezovski, an illustrative composer for the choir liturgic music in Bessarabia of the pre- and interwar period

    ABSTRACT

    The present study offers a style analysis of choir musical creation for the Liturgy by the composer Mihail Berezovschi, a major personality of music from Bessarabia, active in the first half of the 20th century. The monodic sources of the Liturgy, Vesper and Matin, as well as their adaptation are analysed. The findings indicate that Mihail Berezovschi is a continuer of the esthetics of the Russian school of choir composition regarding his own melodic inventions and the their harmonic adaptation. In terms of harmonization, his adaptations of psaltic music do not differ greatly from his original pieces, especially as they mainly resort to the main tonal steps in which the psaltic voice is rendered and less to the secondary steps; moreover, modulation is not accomplished through remote tonalities, but mainly through the tonality of the basic relative (major or minor, accordingly). Sometimes the harmonic version of the main tonality is used for harmonization, especially when the melody modulates in a chromatic voice (II, VI). As a rule, homophonic harmonization is preferred, while the harmonic pedal of the ison is absent, which normally accompanies psaltic chanting. The implification of the ornaments, the tonal harmonic arrangement of the melodic contour along with the absence of the ison somewhat dispel the natural charm of the psaltic monody; for these reasons, Mihail Berezovschi’s choir adaptations are closer to Western music for Liturgy of the harmonic choral than from Romanian choir adaptations of tonomodal writing for the Liturgy.

  2. ANDREI BEJAN, Cernica Monastery, Romania – Aspects of the Chrysantine reform and its implementation in our country (XIXth century)

    ABSTRACT

    The present paper offers a synthetic approach to the personalities of the Chrysantine reform, Chrisant of Madyt, Gregorios the Protopsaltis and Chourmouzios Chartofilakos; their contribution to the thereotical and practical areas were critical in the implementation of the Chrysantine reform in Greece. The present paper also presents information regarding the schools of chanting in the historical provinces of Moldavia and Walachia which also played an important part in the introduction of the new notation and of the chrysantine repertoire to the Orthodox Church of Romania. The final part of the paper offers a codicologic description of a manuscript in chrysantine notation, namely ms. 240 – Chants for the Liturgy, compiled by Monk Martinian from the Cernica Monastery. This important centre for the Romanization of the Orthodox music at Cernica near Bucharest flourished in the former half of the 19th century, under abbot Calinic, a supporter of the church theological and musical culture in the Romanian language.

  3. SERGIU CÂRSTEA, National Opera of Timişoara, Romania – Methods of study that have revolutionized the style performance of the trumpet in the XXth century.

    ABSTRACT

    The article describes a number of methods of the technical study in the twentieth century, which were the basis for the performing style changes and training of several generations of trumpet players who eventually built this style, creating new opportunities for expression, appropriate for the musical language of the XXth century.

  4. CONSTANTIN STAVRAT, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iaşi, Romania – Suite ”Pictures at an Exhibition” – arrangements and transcriptions for orchestra and chamber groups

    ABSTRACT

    Outstanding representative of Russian musical culture, Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839-1881) was imposed at the same time as one of the leading figures of the universal composers of the nineteenth century. Prominent member of The Group of Five, Mussorgsky was not only a pioneer but also an innovator of Russian music in the Romantic period, as he strove to achieve a unique identity, its language influences infiltrating deep in the creation of subsequent generations. Modest Mussorgsky conceived in 1874 the Suite Pictures at an Exhibition, in a great piano accomplishment, with a melodic and rhythmic manner of great suggestive force, in an original harmonic and colorful vesting, rich in modal elements, with a unique architectonic construction.
    Enrolling in the nineteenth century masterpieces gallery dedicated to the piano, the Suite Pictures at an Exhibition is one of the most important achievements of the programmatic instrumental music from the Romantic period. The extremely colorful palette and complex harmonic sonorities, the multitude of voices, timbre and register contrasts that exceed the limits of a single instrument, the piano, all explain that the Suite Pictures at an Exhibition has been subjected for over a century immediately after its publication, to numerous arrangements, transcriptions, adaptations for orchestra, solo instruments or with piano accompaniment, for assemblies of homogeneous or mixed instruments. Inside the informative material on this subject there are about 50 arrangements and transcriptions of the whole piece or fragmentation of Pictures at an Exhibition, which certifies this suite to be included among the works that permanently cause either interpretative imagination or arouse the imagination and creative force

EDITORIAL

Editor in Chief: Professor PhD Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Editorial Board:

Professor PhD Gheorghe Duţică, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iaşi

Associate Professor PhD Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chişinău (Republic of Moldova)

Professor PhD Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Professor PhD Valentina Sandu Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest

Editorial Team:

Lecturer PhD Irina Zamfira Dănilă

Lecturer PhD Rosina Caterina Filimon

Lecturer PhD Diana-Beatrice Andron

Cover design: Bogdan Popa

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


Coperta Revistei Artes 13

This volume, the 13th issue of “Artes” Magazine is new in that it addresses issues of musical Byzantinology, expanding this way the general musicology theme. This new opening was made possible by integrating under the name of “Artes” the Byzantine arts magazine “Byzantium romanicon” published by the Department of Religious Music within “George Enescu” University of Arts in Iasi. During the 17 years that have passed since it was founded at the initiative and under the coordination of Associate Prof. priest Florin Bucescu, PhD, and Prof. Gabriela Ocneanu, PhD, the “Byzantion Romanicon”, review of byzantine arts, recorded a total number of nine issues, outstanding contributions in research and Byzantine music recovery. Nowadays, the “Byzantion Romanicon” review finds a new framework – a good one, for sure – to affirm and confirm internationally research on Romanian musical Byzantinology. Therefore, the 13th volume of “Artes” Magazine contains communications presented at the International Symposium of Byzantinology organized on the 13th and 14th of July, 2012, by “George Enescu” University of Arts in Iasi, entitled “Intervals and modes. The chromatic genre. Ornaments in Romanian Byzantine music”. The volume also included another two important studies that were not subject to discussions during the symposium, but are valuable contributions to broadening the initially proposed topics.

CONTENT

Foreword

I. Intervals and modes. The chromatic genre

  1. DANIEL SUCEAVA, “George Oprescu” Institute of Art History, Bucureşti, Romania – Verses of the Eight Modes and the Age of Octoechos.

    ABSTRACT

    The topic of the grassroots of octaechia (h2 o3ktahci1a) as a taxonomical principle concerning the eight modes of the Byzantine music, as well as the octoechos in terms of liturgical book to which this principle has been applied (or has originated from), has undergone several periods of time while being object to research study. Since the legendary paternity of Saint John Damascene, the pioneer of the semiography and Byzantine hymnography in church tradition, passing through the reevaluation from the first decade of the last century, resulting in considering the octoechos of Severus, the Monophysit Patriarch of Antioch (V-VI c.), as being the first certification of the hymnographical octaechia, the recent studies in which, refuting the afore-mentioned hypothesis, written proofs had been revealed, including fragments on papyrus, prior to Damascenian epoch (Greek, Georgian, Armenian, Syrian, Arabic manuscripts, some recently discovered), try to prove that the origin of the cult book, structured on the eight-week continuous sequence of the Christian liturgical calendar, is hagiopolitan (Palestinian), therefore reflecting the liturgical service of the cathedral in Jerusalem.
    The equivalence of the eight echoi (modes) of the psaltic theory with the harmoniai (a2rmoni1ai) of the Hellenic ancestry has been regarded from the beginning of more rigorous investigations on the phenomenology of the Byzantine musical art, as an artificial construction. But even those short dodecasyllabic poems, devoted to each echos that can be encountered within the Greek octoechoi in which the old ethos-doctrine of the Hellenic harmoniai late reflexion has been seen, have been considered, by the scolars who scientifically managed to publish and decipher the Byzantine musical monuments, factical poetical improvisations lacking any real ground. They appear in manuscripts starting with the XII century, in different variants, among which one later on (XVth century), published only in the midst of the last century. The most common variant that can be found in the printed books, seems to have an author, the Bishop Theodore of Cyzicus, a correspondent, among others, of emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Although these rhymes, that pretend to portray in a naïve and obsolete metaphor, the character of each echos, have been considered, in the first scientific printed anthology, as „barren and dull (uninspired)” (illos [...] inanes et inficetos), they are still able to transmit the echo of the theological conception in connection with music’s role of spiritual loftiness of music within the Christian cult, the way it is encountered in the first writings of the Fathers of Church, as well as other authors close to our days, such as Saint Nicodemus the Hagiorite.

  2. ELENA CHIRCEV, “Gheorghe Dima” Music Academy, Cluj, Romania – The Chromatic Genre in the Books Printed by Hieromonk

    ABSTRACT

    For the history of the Byzantine music in Romania, the name of Macarie the Hieromonk is synonymous with the printing of the first books of ecclesiastical music written in Romanian: Theoreticonul, Anastasimatarul and Irmologhionul, published in Vienna in 1823. The given paper aims at presenting the chromatic genre in all the above mentioned volumes, starting from the manner in which the theoretical aspects have been presented in Theoreticonul and continuing with the research of the content of the melodic formulae out of which the chants of the chromatic genre are composed in these collections. The comparative analysis between both the initial formulae and those pertaining to cadence from Macarie’s Anastasimatarul and the original Greek formulae by Petru Efesiul emphasize the importance a language bears on the structuring of the melodic discourse, but also the contribution of the Romanian psalm singers to the perpetuation of the Byzantine tradition.

  3. MELANIA-ELENA NAGY, “Gheorghe Dima” Music Academy, Cluj, Romania – The chromatic genre in the podoben melodies.

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this paper is to present the diverse manner in which the chromatic genre occurs in the podoben (prosomia) melodies, using examples taken mainly from the manuscripts kept in Cluj-Napoca libraries. Beside the frequent case of the chromatic second authentic mode exchanging scale with its plagal, there are also podobens in diatonic modes borrowing scales of the chromatic modes. We found Romanian manuscripts and also Greek ones containing series of podobens for all eight modes. Each of these podobens has a number of variants, as reflected in the chosen manuscripts and printed books. The oral tradition influence is evident once more even when we are dealing with a written repertoire, such as the one analysed in this paper.

  4. DIMOSTHENIS SPANOUDAKIS, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece – A statistical approach of the chromaticity. The sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος – Today, a tomb holds Him in the new and old notation.

    ABSTRACT

    The present study proposes an interdisciplinary approach (Musicology and Mathematics – Statistic) which has to do with the analysis to the Byzantine Music through the research in manuscripts with new and old notation. More specifically, we use a mathematicallystatistically informed approach to investigate chromaticity in the sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος – Today, a tomb holds Him which is chanted as the first idiomelon of the Lauds of Mattins of Holy Saturday and it is in the second (B’) mode with finalis Di.
    According to the measurements of this study in the sticheron Σήμερον συνέχει τάφος, some conclusions for the chromaticity and the dominating notes in the old sticheraric genre arise; In the new notation dominating notes are melurgicaly-compositionally strengthened with the usual repetition via ison (Graphs 1-1[a-c]) and with the usual extension of their duration through additive duration marks (Graphs 2- 2[a-c]); Dominating notes (Δεσπόζοντες φθόγγοι) have a direct relation with the microstructural (syllables) and mesostructural (kola) verbal units of the hymnographic text, since they usually function as their first note.
    In new and old notation, the parts of the exegesis where Chourmouzios uses the soft chromatic scale correspond to the parts of the D 564 where the metrophonic structure focuses on notes G# and b / Vou and Di. In the same way, the parts of the interpretation where Chourmouzios uses the intense chromatic scale correspond to the parts of the D 564 where the metrophonic structure focuses on notes E and a / Ni and Ga. This means that in the second mode the metrophonic structure indicates the modal oscillations we see in the slow exegesis; It is about an indirect way of suggesting-showing the modulations since those are not explicitly noted (with phthorai) in the musical manuscript. These modulations or better modal oscillations will be easily noticedrecognized by an expert in old notation and oral tradition like the Three Teachers.

II. Ornaments in Romanian Byzantine music

  1. VASILE VASILE, University of Piteşti, Romania – Anton Pann’s Views Regarding the Modes and Musical Ornamentation.

    ABSTRACT

    The Chrisantic reform has established, among other things, the division of the eighth into 68 elements, as the musician Hrisant de Madyt had anticipated. The Byzantine eighth according to Euclid and adopted by the Greeks had 36 elements, while Helmholtz’s eighth had 54. Eventually, an international committee decided the division of the eighth into 72 in 1881. Anton Pann replaced the division of the eighth into 68 elements with that of 22 elements; the seconds consisted of 2, 3 and 4 elements which he called: ton mic, ton mare, ton şi mai mare (small/low ton, high/large ton and larger/higher ton). In terms of modes, he will introduce the division of the eight achos into the two categories ihos şi ihos plaghios and we can remark on the use in his creation of expressive modulations; we owe him the introduction in the Byzantine music of certain modes which are specific of Romanian folk music, such as the famous hisar scale in the well-known Doxology, composed in a Dorian mode with the fourth degree which is raised. He is the first to use the major – minor parallel scales in psaltic music, frequently occurring in Romanian folk music. He will also introduce the oriental scales in religious music in Romanian: muştaar, nisabur and the enharmonique, especially the protovaris – întâiul greu, which was awarded certain weigh. The ornamentation in Anton Pann’s music is characterized by simplicity and the elimination of the melismes which did not play a significant role and he takes into account a certain specific expressiveness illustrated by the Romanian terms of which some were invented by him: grabnic şi zăbavnic. The Western terms suggest new manners of adapting the ornamentation; he introduced certain specific terms and their Romanian translation: largo – pe larg, andante – mai domol, argon – îndoit, allegretto – iutişor, domol şi dulce; he also found in Romanian equivalent terms for the ornamentation signs: psifiston – ton hotărât, omalon – neted, endofon – glas înăuntru a.s.o.

  2. VASILE GRĂJDIAN, “Lucian Blaga” University, Sibiu, Romania – Ornamentation in the Church Singing of Byzantine Tradition in Transylvania. Stichera of the Vesper, to Lord, I have cried, Tone 5.

    ABSTRACT

    Previous musicology research established the kinship of the traditional Orthodox Church singing in Transylvania with the church music of Byzantine tradition, to which were added over time a series of regional folk influences. An mportant collection of songs for the church singing in Transylvania is the book of Church Songs published in 1890 in Vienna by Father Dimitrie Cunţan (1837-1910) from Sibiu - that is until today a defining landmark for the liturgical singing of the Orthodox Church in Transylvania.
    Other research – including many audio records – have shown that in the practice of the liturgical chant in the Transylvanian Orthodox parishes there is a great melodic variety for every type of song, compared with the patterns recorded in the Dimitrie Cunţan’s book of Church Songs. The interpretation performed by the different Transylvanian church singers is often characterized by a rich ornamentation, contributing in an important measure to achieve that melodic variety.
    This study aims to compare the melodic model proposed by Dimitrie Cunţan in his book for the Stichera of the 5th Tone to the "Lord, I have cried" of the Vesper with some haracteristic interpretations, transcribed from 54 more recent records available. The examples chosen are trying to highlight specific types or styles of ornamentation and their influence on the general melodic profile of that song – from close variations until more far variations, in comparison with the model of Dimitrie Cunţan.

  3. IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ, “George Enescu” University of Arts, Iaşi, Romania – THE CHEIRONOMIC SIGNS IN THE KOUKOUZELIAN STICHERARIA IN THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES IASI (NAI)

    ABSTRACT

    The present paper aims at presenting the cheironomic signs in some exemplary manuscripts to be found at the National Archives in Iaşi (NAI); these documents are four Sticheraria. The first codex is Ms. in Greek no. 198, Sticherarion syntomon, author: Petros Peloponnesios, in transitional koukouzelian notatation, not dated, the copying place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the last quarter of the XVIIIth century or in the first decade of the 19th century. The next document is Ms. 203 NAI, a Sticherarion- Kalophonicon in Greek, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development. Ms. 203 is not dated, the publication place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the last decade of the XVIIIth century or in the first decade of the XIXth century. Both mentioned manuscripts come from the Holy Mother of God Church in the town of Roman. The other documents are two unreported manuscripts: Mss. 204 and 206. Ms. in Greek 204 NAI, Sticherarion-Kalophonicon, author Crysaphes the Younger, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, not dated, the copying place is not known, the name of the copyist is not recorded, but it was probably copied in the first half of the 18th last quarter of the 18th century. Ms. in Greek no. 206 NAI is a Sticherarion- Kalophonicon, author Germanos of the New Patra, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, copied at the Iviron Monastery by Kir Giakoumis in 1736.
    In Ms. 198 NAI, in transitional koukouzelian notation, the number of cheironomic signs is relativelly small, because this type of notation is more synthetic. The megalai hypostaseis used in Ms. 198 are: antichenoma, psifiston, varia, omalon, eteron, paraklitiki, tromikon, piasma, lighisma, apoderma.
    In Ms. 203, 204, 206, in koukouzelian notation in its form of the greatest development, apart from the signs adopted from the Chrysantean notation (antichenoma, psifiston, varia, omalon, eteron), it appears a large number of megalai hypostaseis like: lighisma, piasma, tromikon, uranisma followed by thematismos eso with the syllable ne underneath, xironclasma, eteroparakalesma, psifistoparakalesma, the ftora thematismos esso, thes kai apothes.

III. Theory and analysis

  1. MARIA ALEXANDRU, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece – Observations on the diastematic principles in Byzantine musical notations, with emphasis on Gregorios Mpounes and some links to analogous phenomena in Western Chant

    ABSTRACT

    The starting point of our investigation is Oliver Strunk’s observation about the major importance of the adoption of diastematy in Middlebyzantine notation (Specimina notationum antiquiorum, ΜΜΒ VII, Pars Suppletoria, Copenhagen 1966, p. 1).
    The paper begins with a brief reference to the diastematy in the Hermoupolis-Notation, and some considerations on the gradual change from adiastematic Palaeobyzantine notation to diastematic Middlebyzantine neumes in comparison with the development of diastematic notations in Western Chant (part I with Ex. 1-8).
    In part II with Ex. 9-16, focus is shifted on the teaching of the Protopapadike, the later Papadikai and other theoretical texts about the intervals and the notion of metrophonia (intervallic counting, in different levels of theoretical and practical application), which represents a multi-stratified key-concept for the understanding of diastematy in Byzantine musical tradition.
    Part III with Ex. 17-24 concentrates on issues concerning the preparation of a critical edition of Gregorios Mpounes Alyates’ wellknown didactic Method of metrophonia Ne, houtōs oun anabaine (first part of XVth cent.), which forms a precious guide both for the investigation of diastematy and musical texture, and represents a stable element of the late Papadike, transmitted up to the beginning of the XIXth century.

  2. CARMEN DURA, “Vasile cel Mare” Orthodox Theological Seminary, Iaşi, Romania – The Evolution of Chant Exegesis in the Anastasimatarion Pann

    ABSTRACT

    This study aims to clarify the process of chant adaptation to the Romanian language. What did Anton Pann understand by adaptation? What are the limits of this pattern and what does Anton Pann see as innovation? To answer these questions, I compare the development of chant exegesis at Anton Pann based on a complete analysis of two stichera and other three examples. More exactly, I compare and contrast three musical sources: 185th - 198th Greek Manuscript, Library of the Romanian Patriarchate, 741st - 527th Greek Manuscript, 1853-1854, BAR, Anton Pann's Romanian Anastasimatarion, 1854. The study finds that, for Anton Pann, this process has the meaning of adapting the music to specific Romanian standards, on the one hand, and creating a new song, which preserves the structure, the beginning and the end, on the other hand. The study also notes Anton Pann’s interest in highlighting the expressivity of the song.

EDITORIAL

Editor in Chief: Professor PhD Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Senior Editor: Professor Liliana Gherman

Editorial Board:

Professor PhD Gheorghe Duţică, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iaşi

Associate Professor PhD Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chişinău (Republic of Moldova)

Professor PhD Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Professor PhD Valentina Sandu Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest

Editorial Team:

Lecturer PhD Irina Zamfira Dănilă

Lecturer PhD Rosina Caterina Filimon

Lecturer PhD Gabriela Vlahopol

Lecturer PhD Diana-Beatrice Andron

Cover design: Bogdan Popa

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


Coperta Revistei Artes 12

On the one hand, this volume contains research papers presented within the National Musicology Symposium entitled Stylistic identity and contexs of Romanian music (5th edition, Iaşi 2011), on the other hand papers of various topics written as part of doctoral research. Most authors are Iaşi-based (The „George Enescu” Arts University or the „Octav Băncilă” National College), with collaborators from Bucharest (The National University for Music), Cluj- Napoca (The „Gheorghe Dima” Academy for Music), Braşov (Transylvania University – Music Department) and Constanţa („Ovidius” University – Faculty of Arts). The magazine is published in a bilingual Romanian-English version, with translations ensured through the care of the authors. In order to unify the footnotes and the bibliografic notes, we have made use once again – as in the case of the other published volumes – of the indications provided in the work THE TECHNIQUE OF ACADEMIC WRITIGN (Şergan C. Andronescu), published by the Publishing House of the Foundation „România de Mâine”, Bucureşti 1997.

CONTENT

A. Research papers presented within the National Musicology Symposium - Stylistic indentity and contexts of Romanian music, 5th edition, 2011

  1. Carmen Chelaru, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - Romanian Music in the 20th Century: How? Where? Why?

    ABSTRACT

    The Romanian music does and does not exist in Europe. Among the causes which reduce its’ ”visibility” there are: less or even lack of information; the lack of foreign languages into the specialized database. Comparing Romanian musical genres with similar European ones, we notice a spontaneous correlation in technique and value. Remedies: much larger communication channels from and especially to the Romanian musical culture.

  2. Laura Vasiliu, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - The influence of Central European musical culture on modern Romanian composition. Case study: Pascal Bentoiu

    ABSTRACT

    The impulse provided by the configuration of modern national styles under the decisive and wide-reaching influence of Bartók’s compositional technique, the dodecaphonical avant-garde with a stylistic universe of uncompromising modernity initiated by the Second Vienna School, the structures of German musical classicism reiterated in the neoclassical/postmodern values of the 20th century – these are the main influences of Central European musical culture on the composition of Bucharest and Romania. An important disciple of master Mihail Jora (whose studies in Germany decisively shaped his creative profile, as well as the content of the composition school he led in Bucharest for several decades), Pascal Bentoiu configures his compositional art on the basis of classical German principles: rigurous musical writing, coherence of form, grand symphonic dramaturgy, universal sources of inspiration, subject-matter and spiritual openness.

  3. Luminiţa Duţică, The National College of Arts “Octav Băncilă”, Iasi, Romania - Pascal Bentoiu – Eminesciana III. A “Concerto fororchestra” or the dissimulation of a symphony?

    ABSTRACT

    The neoclassical stylistic orientation generated a synthetic compositional concept where the architectonic structures and the musical genres belonging to the Western European tradition merged with the new serial, modal or serial-modal grammars developed during the 20th century. By definition a compositional “hybrid”, the concerto for orchestra – established by Bartók's model as well as by Petrassi's cycle of eight fundamental works – caught quite early the eye of the Romanian composers. In this respect, Pascal Bentoiu was one of those who highlighted the symphonic dimension of the genre from the standpoint of the modalserial lexis.

  4. Gheorghe Duţică, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - “An Encomium to Symmetry”. A View of the Composer Remus Georgescu

    ABSTRACT

    Oftentimes, musical composition follows a predeterminate generative mechanism that takes the shape of an algorithm or matrix having the potential of strategic, macrotemporal coverage. In the Concerto for String Orchestra (Concertul pentru orchestră de coarde), the composer achieves a remarkable feat of composition, generating the entire musical discourse based on the exclusive input of a structure mode whose “placement in time” accurately reflects a series of laborious and refined palindromic symmetries.

  5. Petruţa Coroiu, ”Transilvania” University, Braşov, Romania - The music of Aurel Stroe: Longing for heaven

    ABSTRACT

    For more than a decade, I have had the privilege of beeing subjective with regard to the personality of the master Aurel Stroe. Without forgetting the musical analysis, I always tried to capture – just in ephemeral words - the complexity of his soul, as I had the opportunity to know him over the past 15 years of life. The soul of an artist is just as important as his music, because art only reflects the inner creative resources of the human personality. Aurel Stroe was the artist who made gifts: his soul, his visions, his compositions, his thoughts. Aurel Store gifted himself, not only his own things. His main concern on onthology was the essence of his thinking. That’s why all these memories faced time and continues to live today in our hearts.

  6. Tatiana Oltean, The “Gheorghe Dima” Music Academy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania - Modern Approaches of the Orpheus Myth in Romanian Music. Tudor Feraru: The Lyre of Orpheus and Şerban Marcu: orfeuridice

    ABSTRACT

    The present research brings into light two musical scores recently composed – orfeuridice, ballet for chorus and chamber ensemble written by Şerban Marcu and The Lyre of Orpheus, choreographic poem written by Tudor Feraru. The two composers are young members of the Transylvanian contemporary composition school, both disciples of Cornel Ţăranu. The analytical and comparative approach highlights the particularities of musical language, structure and creative view towards the Ancient myth of Orpheus in the two works mentioned above. The research also focuses on the staging of the two works, comparing the choreographic perspectives of Melinda Jakab, who choreographed the two works, the particular use and significance of symbols and message involved both in music and dance.

  7. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - Aspects of contemporary liturgy music in the Republic of Moldova – The Liturgy – by Vladimir Ciolac and The Hymns of the Saint Liturgy of Saint John the Chrysostom by Teodor Zgureanu

    ABSTRACT

    The present paper focuses on two choral liturgy pieces which are representative of the music composed in the Republic of Moldova, The Liturgy by Vladimir Ciolac and the Hymns of the Saint Liturgy of Saint John the Chrysostom by Teodor Zgureanu. Through the complex musical analysis the paper aims at: 1. identifying possible intonation sources inspired from psaltic music which are used as a melody profile in these liturgies; 2. emphasizing the specific musical methods used by the two authors to adapt it.

B. Variously themed papers conceived as part of doctoral research

  1. Brînduşa Tudor, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - Classical and Romantic in Sonata in A minor op. 164 D 537 by Franz Schubert

    ABSTRACT

    In this paper, we tried to highlight the complexity and value of the sonata in A minor op. 164 D 537 by Franz Schubert, from two perspectives: structural and semiotic - of musical discourse analysis, emphasizing the connection to tradition (classical elements) and the novelties introduced by the composer (romantic elements). Sonata in A minor op. 164 D 537 reveals the composer's own clearly defined conception on the sonata genre, as well as on the sonata form, Schubert proving his deep knowledge of the traditional patterns, but that he adjusts them according to his own thinking, of romantic conduct.

  2. Mariana Frăţilă, Faculty of Arts of the “Ovidius" University, Constanţa, Romania - Trends and Tendencies in the European Music of the First Half of the 20th Century

    ABSTRACT

    The present paper panoramically describes European music of the first half of the 20th century. In order to easily understand the musical tableau of the respective period of time in its entire complexity it was necessary to consider the evolution premises existent at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the following one. The content of this paper is the result of a documentary research activity on the evolution of music during Post-Romanticism and Modernism. From the bibliography, musical scores and audio materials we extracted data that enabled us to shape/recompose the multifaceted image of the musical phenomenon of a period of time of more than a half of a century which was extremely fertile from the point of view of both diversity of accomplishing means and variety of stylistic expression. The multitude ways of composing and the limited space of the present paper did not allow us to exhaustively cover all procedures composers employed in creating music during the abovementioned period of time, nevertheless we succeeded in presenting an exact overview of those trends and tendencies which - simultaneously or consequently - not only deeply hallmarked the music of the first half of the 20th century, but also opened interesting and multiple perspectives for the subsequent evolution in music.

  3. Roxana-Luiza Moldovan, Bucharest, Romania - Valences of the (a)typical nature – Erik Satie

    ABSTRACT

    The study contains two parts: I. Valences of the atypical nature - Erik Satie; II. Satie and his personal vocation: procedural type constants.
    I. Valences of the atypical nature - Erik Satie is a componistical portrait.Among other things, I talk about the way in which his personal nature exercise the influence at the level of musical parameters.
    II. ” Satie and his personal vocation: procedural type constants” presents the parameters repeatedly used in the compositions of Erik Satie: disonnances, metric freedom, the agogica parody, the segments technique.

  4. Daniela Doroşincă, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - Interpretative and theoretical landmark in the Modal Liturgy by Achim Stoia

    ABSTRACT

    In march 1937, Achim Stoia is writing a Liturgy for mixed choir, monumental by it’s construction and it’s complex vocal appliance, with a diatonic tono-modal harmony with major-minor intonations and a harmonic - polyphonic writing that presents the imitations and stretto entrances, the pedals and the accompaniment taken from the byzantine music, and also a metric that combines the binary structures with the third ones. The popular modal universe that crates the expressive Liturgy, combined with an expressive and complex harmonic feeling that gives its uniqueness and the own value only to those creations meant to persist all over the ages.
    A particularity of the composer Achim Stoia that help him create monumental sound compositions is that the Liturgy treats the vocal lines similar to the instrumental ones, and the melodic speech result from the harmonic blend and not from the horizontal development on the melody, as it happens in the liturgical compositions of other authors of religious choral music, and the endings are always composed expansive on major arrangements.
    The musical language complexity comes around the interpretative creation act requires various execution techniques, starting from the legato sung manner in the seraphic canticles (The Cherubic Hymn), reaching subtle sonorities by poco staccato or cvasi-recitative (Holly God) and ending with a detachee suppleness split from the baroque music scene in complex canticles ( We may receive the King of all, Holy, holy, holy, Lord Sabaoth).
    The Modal Liturgy of Achim Stoia is in the Romanian musical consciousness a perfection model regarding the harmonic and modal language richness but also as mode of sound construction based on polyphonic principle take from the great Dutch polyphonists technique.

  5. Dorina Iuşcă, ”George Enescu” University of Arts, Iasi, Romania - Music Performance Anxiety

    ABSTRACT

    Music performance anxiety is one of the main factors that influence the artistic level of classical music performers. Its significant incidence among amateur and professional musicians and its special impact on one’s developing music career interested the international scientific community. As a result, during the last years, a series of important studies discovered a large area of information related to the associated factors of music performance anxiety and to therapeutic approaches. The present research is a review of the main findings.

EDITORIAL

Editor in Chief: Professor PhD Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Editorial Board:

Professor PhD Gheorghe Duţică, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iaşi

Associate Professor PhD Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chişinău (Republic of Moldova)

Professor PhD hab. Vladimir Axionov, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chişinău (Republic of Moldova)

Professor PhD Valentina Sandu Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest

Editorial Team:

Professor Liliana Gherman

Lecturer PhD Gabriela Vlahopol

Lecturer PhD Diana-Beatrice Andron

Cover design: Bogdan Popa

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


Coperta Revistei Artes 11

This volume includes works accomplished both after the publication of ARTES 9-10 (2010) and before that date, mostly in the framework of doctoral and post-doctoral studies. The fairly diverse body of themes covering a wide range of interests was grouped in three major chapters: 1) structural and stylistic analyses, 2) Stylistic and performance analyses and 3) Aesthetic and sociologic analyses. Most of the authors are based in Iaşi (University of Arts “George Enescu” or National College “Octav Băncilă”), but the contents also feature collaborators from Bucureşti (National University of Music) and Braşov (Universitatea Transilvania – Faculty of music).
Starting with this issue, the magazine will be published in a bilingual Romanian-English edition, with translations provided through the care of the article authors.
In the case of footnotes and bibliographic notes, in order to render the volume unitary, we have continued to apply – as in the previous volumes – the indications supplied by TEHNICA SCRIERII ACADEMICE (The Technique of Academic Writing, rom.) by Şerban C. Andronescu (Foundation ”România de Mâine” publishing house, Bucureşti, 1997).

CONTENT

1) Structural and stylistic analyses

  1. Liliana Gherman, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - The Opera Oedipus by George Enescu and the opera-oratorio Meşterul Manole / Stonemason Manole by Sigismund Toduţă – two facets of Romanian spirituality

    ABSTRACT

    Starting from a statement Franz Liszt once made, that “The poet or the artist sometime manages to encapsulate the aspiration for beauty of a people or an age. In their works, they manage to perfectly reflect the representative types that people or age wishes to imitate.” the present text focuses on two ample vocal-symphonic pieces – George Enescu’s opera Oedipus and Sigismund Toduţă’s opera-oratorio Meşterul Manole / Stonemason Manole – whose first auditions took place at a distance of almost half century from each other (1936 and 1985 respectively) in distinct stages in the development of the Romanian music, as well as in the cultural and political configuration of the Romanian people. Far from attempting to be a comprehensive presentation of the two pieces which are of similar value according to the musical critics and counted as masterpieces, the paper points out several distinctive features they have and discusses them from the perspective of certain aesthetic and philosophical ideas that center round Romanian spirituality within its overall evolution and with its distinct stages circumscribed by the various circumstances.

  2. Loredana Iaţeşen, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Expressionist tendencies in the Romanian opera of the first decades of the 20h Century

    ABSTRACT

    Expressionism in Romanian music in the first decades of the 20th century is not a novelty, because of the meticulous musicological research belonging to Clemansa Liliana Firca. We list the sections devoted to the particular manifestation of this orientation in the volumes Directions in the Romanian Music (1900-1930), Modernity and Avant-garde in the Pre- and Inter-war Music (1900-1940) or the study Resonances of Expressionism Esthetics in the Romanian Musical Creation, which proved phenomenon’s viability in certain creations of the orchestral (suite), scenic (ballet) sphere, and whose echoes were partially felt in the opera genre. Starting from the researcher’s pertinent remarks, this article aims at highlighting the adaptation of the European current features in the Romanian scenic area in the first half of 20th century, on the line of the exaggerated realism in The Misfortune (Sabin Drăgoi, 1927), of Igor Stravinski’s influence with his stille barbaro veiled in A Stormy Night (Paul Constantinescu, 1934), to the musical-dramatic peculiarities which attest the sublimated expressionism of Oedipus masterpiece (George Enescu, 1931)

  3. Cristina Maria Bostan, The Transylvania University of Braşov, Romania - Dmitri Şostakovici – a representative of Russian national music in the 20th century - The opera Lady Macbeth from Mţensk, between tradition and modernity

    ABSTRACT

    The opera Lady Macbeth From Mţensk is a musical drama based on the idea of compassion towards woman’s condition in the contemporary society. It could be interpreted, from the subject’s point of view, as a tragic metaphor. Şostakovici considered it a “satirictragedy” where he magnifically mixes the tragic, the sarcasm and the grotesque. The emphasis of the material side, of human’s degradation to the level of pure physiology constitutes a parable. The composer stresses exactly the toughest, cruelest moments, the murders, trying to accomplish thus a “metaphoric” analogy between the expressionist artistic elements and the nightmare reality that he and his compatriots were experiencing. The repulsion that some scenes from the second act as well as the final scenes create hints at the cruel reality. The composer finds the most appropriate elements and musical means for keeping up the action and the characters’ descriptions.

  4. Claudia Nezelschi, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Liviu Glodeanu’s Zamolxis, at the confluence of music, mathematics and theology

    ABSTRACT

    This study aims at presenting L Glodeanu's opera, Zamolxis, with emphasis on the interferences between his work and O. Messiaen’s universe of composition, on the mathematic notions underlying the musical structures and on the theological meanings outlined by the ethos of music, starting from the poetical and aphoristic work of Lucian Blaga.

  5. Ciprian Ion, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Constantin Georgescu - Finding a Destiny and a Sonorous Universe

    ABSTRACT

    The content of this article refers to the personality and creation of a musician whose achievements have entered into obscurity for reasons difficult to understand. The article’s aim to restore Constantin Georgescu’s name to the attention of the music world is supported by a brief insight into his work, highlighting those stylistic and compositional features that emphasize the rigor and depth of his compositions. The few biographical references related to the career of Constantin Georgescu are intended to outline the historical, social and cultural background of the first half of the 20th century, which is important for understanding the influences on his musical language.

  6. Anca Leahu, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Syntactic and Timbral Structures in Anton Zeman’s Symphony No. 2 “Aliaje”

    ABSTRACT

    Conceived in one single movement, Anton Zeman's Symphony no. 2 ”Aliaje” exhibits, thanks to the modern language, compositional technique and graphic icons employed by the composer, an instance of his view on Romanian spirituality. The symphony springs from a process of transformational evolution of the areas having a global effect, with various manifestations of sonorous density, technical constitution or timbral nature. There are several sonorous characters of a syntactic, dramaturgic or timbral sort which give voice to the Aliaje (Alloys) in a complex symphonic background.

  7. Irina Zamfira Dănilă, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - The adaptation of Byzantine and post-Byzantine monody and of psaltic Christmas carols in Viorel Munteanu’s creation

    ABSTRACT

    For his piece for voice and orchestra The Voices of Putna, composer Viorel Munteanu drew his inspiration from the Byzantine melodies stored in the manuscripts at the Musical school at the Putna monastery. He borrowed several motifs of two distinctive Byzantine chants by Romanian composers Dometian Vlahu and Evstatie the Protopsalt, which he adapted using specific musical methods. Relying on the old canons, he thus succeeded in producing an original monody supported by the use of isons, the spatialization of the sound flow as the various musical motifs are played by various instruments, the combination between antiphonic and heterophonic singing. In The Voices of Putna, composer Viorel Munteanu recreates the atmosphere of piety and prayer to be found in monasteries. In his Second Christmas suite, Viorel Munteanu draws his inspiration from old church music (in the piece The Virgin Today), as well as from old archaic Christmas carols, from either folklore or psaltic music (in You Are the Holy Light). In the volume A drop of ”ler”, Viorel Munteanu adapts with harmonic methods and polyphonic methods of a modal nature folklore Christmas carols, both lay and religious carols for two-voice and three-equal voice choirs, which can thus be used for youths, especially in schools.

  8. Andrei Hrubaru-Roată, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Fibonacci perennis - From W.A. Mozart to L. Bernstein

    ABSTRACT

    It is widely accepted that an Ariadne`s thread ties the antique Egypt’s monuments to res, the Renaissance’s picture and gothic cathedrals, the Picass tecture, and that this thread is in fact a proportion, the golden proportion. If this has relevance in the temporal arts, in music especially, it is an issue harder to cut. The intuition of space and time, although interconnected, presents undeniable features. In this studies we answer favorably to this dilemma, not from the esthetics point of view, but of the interpret, witch, having the privilege to be the one who lifts the first of the many veils that hide the mystery of creation embedded in the score, “playing” that mystery in the face of the audience, has the obligation to understand, as much as possible, and at a rational level, what where the subtle ins and outs of it , in what way they have the power to produce on the listener the desired effect imagined by the creator. Counting on the known historic value of the two pieces of work in discussion here belonging to the representatives of two different eras, Mozart and Bernstein, and on the correctness of our judgment, we hope to have contributed, even in a small measure to the consolidation of our point of view that we have previously presented.

2) Stylistic and performance analyses

  1. Dorina Iuşcă, Viorel Munteanu, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Situation-related factors of music performance assessment

    ABSTRACT

    Music performance assessment of constitutes a complex activity that is influenced by a series of psychological factors which may result in obtaining a certain artistic quality. Most of them are associated with performer’s individual characteristics that refer to the interaction between musical aptitude and musical training. Recently, studies in literature showed that obtaining a certain musical level is conditioned by a series of external factors like: assessment strategy, music performance presentation format, adjudicators’ musical experience, audition timing, the presence of accompaniment, the repertoire and adjudicators’ familiarity with it and the visual characteristics of performers. The present study aims to illustrate a synthetic view of these factors.

  2. Andrei Enoiu-Pânzariu, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Beethoven’s piano sonatas – editorial guidelines

    ABSTRACT

    This article intends to offer assistance to the musicians who wish to approach the 32 piano sonatas written by Ludwig van Beethoven. We will analyze and remark upon some of the most important editions, revised by famous musicians who influenced the interpretative visions of the future generations. The Urtext editions are regarded as the most accurate and complete editions. Most of them affirm that they are reproducing the original text, based either on the manuscript or on the first editions. However, great importance is also attributed to the editors or, more exactly, to those revising the editions, who add most of the times the fingerings and the footnotes remarking upon various technical and performance problems. By comparing the numerous editions, I discovered valuable indications concerning the interpretation. We can mark down the L. Holle edition, edited by Franz Liszt, the G. Schirmer edition, edited by Hans von Bülow and Sigmund Lebert and the Curci edition, revised by Arthur Schnabel. In 2011, the established editions are the G. Henle edition, revised by B.A. Wallner, Münich 1975 and the Wiener Urtext Edition, revised by Peter Hauschild, 1999. By studying these editions in detail, we can understand their views on the interpretation of Beethoven’s piano sonatas in the central European space. At present, the editions revised by Franz Liszt, Hans von Bülow and Sigmund Lebert, as well as the edition revised by Arthur Schnabel are regarded with skepticism by the pianists, because of the small changes made to the text and because of the dynamics and agogic indications. However, the study of these editions can offer valuable interpretative clues that reveal the interpretative view of the pianist-editor. Due to the variety of information, these editions represent a text to be studied in all the cases when the musician wishes to approach a new interpretative view.

  3. Raluca Pânzariu, “Octav Băncilă” National Highschool, Iasi, Romania - Stylistic and performance aspects of piano music reflected in the creation of the composer Isaac Albéniz (1860 – 1909)

    ABSTRACT

    The articol Stylistic and performance aspects of piano music reflected in the creation of the composer Isaac Albéniz reveals some elements concerrning the biographic aspects of the composer, the classification of piano works in 3 wide categories. There are mentioned small style features and also a short stylistic and performance analysis of the works Suita España op. 165, 6 Feuilles d’Album pour piano and Pavana – Capricho. The articol finishes with general conclusions of the entire piano works of the composer Isaac Albéniz and of the piece analized - Suita España op. 165, 6 Feuilles d’Album pour piano.

  4. Ionela Butu, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Dissonance op. 34 no. 13 by S. Rachmaninoff. Stylistic - interpretive analysis

    ABSTRACT

    The stylistic - interpretative analysis of the song, primarily done from a pianistic point of view, emphasized some aspects which allow the ordering of signs around landmark-senses which helps the understanding of the artistic message. The main coordinates - specifically interpretative - dynamic, agogic, timbre, sound (sound form in relation to the written one) ordered their meanings by relating to the coherence required by the chamber ensemble exigencies, with its own laws of configuration. Their inter-relationship stylistically nuanced on the mentioned background enables the whole architectural balance. Because Dissonance op. 34 nr. 13 is a final opus of the composer in the song’s genre, we consider useful the synthetic observations where the text allowed their insertion, in order to create the semantic environment necessary to understand the particular aspects. Also, we made references to similar works of other composers, despite the different stylistic areas compared. Thus, specificity is easily highlighted by contrast. An important topic of the study is represented by the non-coincidence betweeen the climax of the work and the culmination - main landmarks based on which the interpretation can be truly constructed, as they express the expressive ambitus of the work, beyond the surface indications.

3) Aesthetic and sociologic analyses

  1. Elena Pârvu, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Modernism or modernity?

    ABSTRACT

    If the term modern is framework-concept and modernism - an attitude marked by exaggerations and experimentations, modernity is both a creative concept and a stylistic era that encompasses post-romantic aesthetic trends. Adrian Marino admirably expresses the essence of modernity, in his study Modern, Modernism, Modernity: "To rise to the universal, through transfiguration and creative crystallization the modern ephemeral - this is the real and profound modernity of art and literature and, at the same time, the technique of achieving this modernity”. Essentially, musical modernity primarily involves the separation of the expressive semantics of the stress-relaxation arc, generated by harmonic and tonal functionality, and also the renouncement at thematic elements which is a fundamental creation principle in tonal music.

  2. Rosina Caterina Filimon, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Beneficial Subliminal Music

    ABSTRACT

    The PhD study hereafter is a follow-up to the scientific dissertation titled “Subliminal Music” and published in Artes journal (Vol. 6, pp. 141-154), in which the harmful impact of subliminal messages hidden in musical speech has been debated. The present study, Benefic Subliminal Music, describes the usage of subliminal music set to incur beneficial effects on the human mind and body through the Binaural Beats technology and Hemi-Sync technology. The Binaural Beats technology was discovered by the German physicist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803–1879) in 1839 and tested on the encephalograph by the American biophysicist Gerald Oster (1918 – 1993) in 1973, at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. This procedure represents a recent discovery in the musicotherapy field and a new brain training technique, studied and tested in many research centers and universities. The cerebral hemispheres synchronization technology Binaural Beats was applied by Robert Monroe (1915 – 1995) as Hemi-Sync sound technology by means of mixing cerebral wave frequencies with music, nature sounds, and verbal guidance to the result of something more than music – Metamusic. This acoustic alchemy put into practice has yielded significant results in creative capability development, learning processes acceleration, pain relief, anxiety and depression amelioration, as well as in relaxation, meditation, and hypnosis induction.

  3. Adrian Leonard Mociulschi, University of Arts “George Enescu”, Iasi, Romania - Art and Mass Communication

    ABSTRACT

    The essay proposes a perspective over the contemporary artistic phenomenon, reported to the technological changes that have been resized and redesigned the artistic events, from cave paintings to Beethoven's sonatas, in the field of mass communication set up by the mainstream of the information society. Through mass communication channels, the artistic message spreads from the past to present days, across radio, television, Internet etc. being perceived by the public. Today, Beethoven's music is equally contemporary music, like Xenakis’.

EDITORIAL

Editor in Chief: Professor PhD Laura Otilia Vasiliu

Editorial Board:

Professor PhD Gheorghe Duţică, University of Arts “George Enescu” Iaşi

Associate Professor PhD Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chişinău (Republic of Moldova)

Professor PhD Maria Alexandru, “Aristotle” University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Professor PhD Valentina Sandu Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest

Editorial Team:

Professor Liliana Gherman

Lecturer PhD Gabriela Vlahopol

Lecturer PhD Diana-Beatrice Andron

Cover design: Bogdan Popa

© ARTES publishing house – "George Enescu" University of Arts Iaşi

ISSN print: 2344 - 3871

ISSN online: 2558 - 8532

ISSN-L: 2344 - 3871

The rights on the present issue belong to Artes Publishing House. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will punished according to the legislation in force.


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ARTES. JOURNAL OF MUSICOLOGY publishes research studies in major fields of musicology: Music History, Music Theory, Music Analysis, Musical Aesthetics, Ethnomusicology, Musical Byzantinology, Theory of musical performance.

Three types of scientific articles are published in the magazine: 1. Studies/original articles (10-30 pages). 2. Papers presented at conferences (8-10 pages); 3. Book reviews (3-5 pages).

The manuscripts submitted to Artes. Journal of musicology become the property of Artes Publishing House of “George Enescu” National University of Arts – Iasi, Romania. It is considered that submitted works have never been published before.

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